Modern Indian History British Administrative Policy
The British Raj was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between and Financial Reform Act of ; Gold Reserve Fund created for India. .. In the second half of the 19th century, both the direct administration of India by .. to be a watershed in the imperial relationship between Britain and India. Her Majesty's Home Civil Service, also known as Her Majesty's Civil Service or the Home Civil Foreign relations . A Civil Service Commission was set up in to oversee open recruitment and end patronage. was mushrooming, to a point at which the "good all-rounder" culture of the administrative civil servant with a. This study analyses administrative reforms in India to identify the philosophical, cultural and ideological underpinnings of these reforms and.
Hyderabad for example was the size of England and Wales combined, and its ruler, the Nizam, was the richest man in the world. They would also serve as political bulwarks in the nationalist storms that gathered momentum from the late 19th century and broke with insistent ferocity over the first half of the 20th century.
But the 'Great Rebellion' did more to create a racial chasm between ordinary Indians and Britons. While the British criticised the divisions of the Hindu caste system, they themselves lived a life ruled by precedence and class, deeply divided within itself.
Rudyard Kipling reflected this position in his novels. His books also exposed the gulf between the 'white' community and the 'Anglo-Indians', whose mixed race caused them to be considered racially 'impure'. Top Government in India While there was a consensus that Indian policy was above party politics, in practice it became embroiled in the vicissitudes of Westminster. Successive viceroys in India and secretaries of state in London were appointed on a party basis, having little or no direct experience of Indian conditions and they strove to serve two masters.
Edwin Montagu was the first serving secretary of state to visit India on a fact-finding mission in Broadly speaking, the Government of India combined a policy of co-operation and conciliation of different strata of Indian society with a policy of coercion and force. The empire was nothing if not an engine of economic gain.
Pragmatism dictated that to govern efficiently and remuneratively, 1, Indian civil servants could not rule to million Indians without the assistance of indigenous 'collaborators'. However, in true British tradition, they also chose to elaborate sophisticated and intellectual arguments to justify and explain their rule.
On the one hand, Whigs and Liberals expounded sentiments most iconically expressed by TB Macaulay in Whether such a day will ever come I know not.
Whenever it comes, it will be the proudest day in English history. For instance, tariff walls were raised to protect the Indian cotton industry against cheap British imports. Top Financial gains and losses There were two incontrovertible economic benefits provided by India.
It was a captive market for British goods and services, and served defence needs by maintaining a large standing army at no cost to the British taxpayer. However, the economic balance sheet of the empire remains a controversial topic and the debate has revolved around whether the British developed or retarded the Indian economy.
Controversy remains over whether Britain developed or retarded India's economy. Among the benefits bequeathed by the British connection were the large scale capital investments in infrastructure, in railways, canals and irrigation works, shipping and mining; the commercialisation of agriculture with the development of a cash nexus; the establishment of an education system in English and of law and order creating suitable conditions for the growth of industry and enterprise; and the integration of India into the world economy.
Conversely, the British are criticised for leaving Indians poorer and more prone to devastating famines; exhorting high taxation in cash from an inpecunious people; destabilising cropping patterns by forced commercial cropping; draining Indian revenues to pay for an expensive bureaucracy including in London and an army beyond India's own defence needs; servicing a huge sterling debt, not ensuring that the returns from capital investment were reinvested to develop the Indian economy rather than reimbursed to London; and retaining the levers of economic power in British hands.
Top The Indian National Congress The foundation of the Indian National Congress in as an all India, secular political party, is widely regarded as a key turning point in formalising opposition to the Raj.
It developed from its elite intellectual middle-class confines, and a moderate, loyalist agenda, to become by the inter-war years, a mass organisation. It was an organisation which, despite the tremendous diversity of the sub-continent, was remarkable in achieving broad consensus over the decades.
Also split within Congress were those who advocated violence and those who stressed non-violence. Yet it was not a homogenous organisation and was often dominated by factionalism and opposing political strategies. This was exemplified by its splintering in into the so-called 'moderate' and 'extremist' wings, which reunited 10 years later. Another example were the 'pro-changers' who believed working the constitutional structures to weaken it from within and 'no-changers' who wanted to distance themselves from the Raj during the s.
There was also a split within Congress between those who believed that violence was a justifiable weapon in the fight against imperial oppression whose most iconic figure was Subhas Chandra Bose, who went on to form the Indian National Armyand those who stressed non-violence.
The towering figure in this latter group was Mahatma Gandhi, who introduced a seismic new idiom of opposition in the shape of non-violent non-cooperation or 'satyagraha' meaning 'truth' or 'soul' force'. Gandhi oversaw three major nationwide movements which achieved varying degrees of success inand in These mobilised the masses on the one hand, while provoking the authorities into draconian repression.
Much to Gandhi's distress, self-restraint among supporters often gave way to violence. Top Reasons for independence The British Raj unravelled quickly in the s, perhaps surprising after the empire in the east had so recently survived its greatest challenge in the shape of Japanese expansionism. The reasons for independence were multifaceted and the result of both long and short term factors. The pressure from the rising tide of nationalism made running the empire politically and economically very challenging and increasingly not cost effective.
This pressure was embodied as much in the activities of large pan-national organisations like the Congress as in pressure from below - from the 'subalterns' through the acts of peasant and tribal resistance and revolt, trade union strikes and individual acts of subversion and violence. With US foreign policy pressurising the end of western imperialism, it seemed only a matter of time before India gained its freedom. There were further symptoms of the disengagement from empire.
European capital investment declined in the inter-war years and India went from a debtor country in World War One to a creditor in World War Two. Britain's strategy of a gradual devolution of power, its representation to Indians through successive constitutional acts and a deliberate 'Indianisation' of the administration, gathered a momentum of its own.
Administrative Changes in India after 1858 | Indian History
As a result, India moved inexorably towards self-government. The civil service, based on examination similar to the Chinese system, was advocated by a number of Englishmen over the next several decades. A permanent, unified and politically neutral civil service, in which appointments were made on merit, was introduced on the recommendations of the Northcote—Trevelyan Report ofwhich also recommended a clear division between staff responsible for routine "mechanical" work, and those engaged in policy formulation and implementation in an "administrative" class.
The report was not implemented, but it came at a time when the bureaucratic chaos in the Crimean War demonstrated that the military was as backward as the civil service. A Civil Service Commission was set up in to oversee open recruitment and end patronage. Prime Minister Gladstone took the decisive step in with his Order in Council to implement the Northcote-Trevelyan proposals.
The Northcote—Trevelyan model remained essentially stable for a hundred years. This was a tribute to its success in removing corruption, delivering public services even under the stress of two world warsand responding effectively to political change. The Northcote-Trevelyan model was characterised by a hierarchical mode of Weberian bureaucracy; neutral, permanent and anonymous officials motivated by the public interest; and a willingness to administer policies ultimately determined by ministers.
This bequeathed a set of theories, institutions and practices to subsequent generations of administrators in the central state. Some British departments' area of operation extended to Ireland, while in other fields the Dublin department was separate from the Whitehall equivalent.
There was a concern illustrated in C. Snow 's Strangers and Brothers series of novels that technical and scientific expertise was mushrooming, to a point at which the "good all-rounder" culture of the administrative civil servant with a classics or other arts degree could no longer properly engage with it: The times were, moreover, ones of keen respect for technocracy, with the mass mobilisation of war having worked effectively, and the French National Plan apparently delivering economic success.
And there was also a feeling which would not go away, following the war and the radical social reforms of the Labour government, that the so-called " mandarins " of the higher civil service were too remote from the people. Lord Fulton 's committee reported in He found that administrators were not professional enough, and in particular lacked management skills; that the position of technical and scientific experts needed to be rationalised and enhanced; and that the service was indeed too remote.
His recommendations included the introduction of a unified grading system for all categories of staff, a Civil Service College and a central policy planning unit.
British Raj - Wikipedia
He also said that control of the service should be taken from the Treasury, and given to a new Department, and that the "fast stream" recruitment process for accessing the upper echelons should be made more flexible, to encourage candidates from less privileged backgrounds. But, whether through lack of political will, or through passive resistance by a mandarinate which the report had suggested were "amateurs", Fulton failed.
The Civil Service College equipped generalists with additional skills, but did not turn them into qualified professionals as ENA did in France. Recruits to the fast stream self-selected, with the universities of Oxford and Cambridge still producing a large majority of successful English candidates, since the system continued to favour the tutorial system at Oxbridge while to an extent the Scottish Ancient universities educated a good proportion of recruits from north of the border.
The younger mandarins found excuses to avoid managerial jobs in favour of the more prestigious postings. The generalists remained on top, and the specialists on tap.
Civil Service (United Kingdom) - Wikipedia
Margaret Thatcher's government[ edit ] Margaret Thatcher came to office in believing in free markets as a better social system in many areas than the state: Many of her ministers were suspicious of the civil service, in light of public choice research that suggested public servants tend to increase their own power and budgets.
She immediately set about reducing the size of the civil service, cutting numbers fromtoover her first seven years in office. This led to the Financial Management Initiativelaunched in September Efficiency and Effectiveness in the Civil Service Cmnd as an umbrella for the efficiency scrutiny programme and with a wider focus on corporate planning, efficiency and objective-setting.