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Do crosswords help improve cognitive functioning, or are you just strengthening a strength? Low Sexual Desire · Relationships · Sex . that can potentially ward off the onset of Alzheimer's disease . Making things hard on yourself, but in a good way: Creating desirable difficulties to enhance learning. We continue to make difficult crossword puzzles simple with our extensive list of words starting with a J. By keeping this resource under your sleeve, you'll have. According to new research, training the brain with puzzles and crosswords may well delay the onset of cognitive decline in old age, keeping the.
For example, for safety reasons, you might need your partner to remember to pick you up on time after dark. But calling you several times a day may really only be a "want. A clear message involves a respectful but direct expression of your wants and needs. Take some time to identify what you really want before talking to your partner. Work on being able to describe your request in clear, observable terms.
For example, you might say, "I would like you to hold my hand more often" rather than the vague, "I wish you were more affectionate. It can be tempting to list your concerns or grievances, but doing so will likely prolong an argument. Do your best to keep the focus on resolving one concern at a time. Being a good listener requires the following: You might start this process with: Research has found that couples who "edit" themselves and do not say all the angry things they may be thinking are typically the happiest.
Adopt a "Win-Win" Position. A "win-win" stance means that your goal is for the relationship, rather than for either partner, to "win" in a conflict situation. Holding on to unrealistic expectations can cause a relationship to be unsatisfying and to eventually fail.
The following will help you to distinguish between healthy and problematic relationship expectations: What you want from a relationship in the early months of dating may be quite different from what you want after you have been together for some time.
Anticipate that both you and your partner will change over time. Feelings of love and passion change with time, as well. Respecting and valuing these changes is healthy. Love literally changes brain chemistry for the first months of a relationship. For both physiological and emotional reasons, an established relationship will have a more complex and often richer type of passion than a new relationship.
It is difficult, but healthy, to accept that there are some things about our partners that will not change over time, no matter how much we want them to.
Unfortunately, there is often an expectation that our partner will change only in the ways we want. We may also hold the unrealistic expectation that our partner will never change from the way he or she is now. Express Wants and Needs. While it is easy to assume that your partner knows your wants and needs, this is often not the case and can be the source of much stress in relationships. A healthier approach is to directly express our needs and wishes to our partner.
Respect Your Partner's Rights.6 Tips on How to Have a Strong Relationship
It is unrealistic to expect or demand that that he or she have the same priorities, goals, and interests as you. Be Prepared to "Fight Fair. Healthy couples fight, but they "fight fair" - accepting responsibility for their part in a problem, admitting when they are wrong, and seeking compromise. Additional information about fair fighting can be found here.
Fighting Fair Maintain the Relationship. Most of us know that keeping a vehicle moving in the desired direction requires not only regular refueling, but also ongoing maintenance and active corrections to the steering to compensate for changes in the road. A similar situation applies to continuing relationships. While we may work hard to get the relationship started, expecting to cruise without effort or active maintenance typically leads the relationship to stall or crash!
Though gifts and getaways are important, it is often the small, nonmaterial things that partners routinely do for each other that keep the relationship satisfying. Outside Pressures on the Relationship Differences in Background.
Even partners coming from very similar cultural, religious, or economic backgrounds can benefit from discussing their expectations of how a good boyfriend, girlfriend, or spouse behaves. What seems obvious or normal to you may surprise your partner, and vice versa. If you are from different backgrounds, be aware that you may need to spend more time and energy to build your relationship. Take the time to learn about your partner's culture or religion, being careful to check out what parts of such information actually fit for your partner.
Time Together and Apart. How much time you spend together and apart is a common relationship concern. If you interpret your partner's time apart from you as, "he or she doesn't care for me as much as I care for him or her," you may be headed for trouble by jumping to conclusions.
Check out with your partner what time alone means to him or her, and share your feelings about what you need from the relationship in terms of time together. Demanding what you want, regardless of your partner's needs, usually ends up driving your partner away, so work on reaching a compromise.
For many students, families remain an important source of emotional, if not financial, support during their years at the university. Some people find dealing with their partner's family difficult or frustrating. It can help to take a step back and think about parental good intentions. Families may offer well-intentioned advice about your relationship or your partner.
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It's important that the two of you discuss and agree on how you want to respond to differing family values and support one another in the face of what can be very intense "suggestions" from family. There are some people who seem to believe that "I have to give up all my friends unless my partner likes them as much as I do.
Puzzles are often one of several standard sizes. The New York Times puzzles also set a common pattern for American crosswords by increasing in difficulty throughout the week: Their larger Sunday puzzle is about the same level of difficulty as a weekday-size Thursday puzzle. Typically clues appear outside the grid, divided into an Across list and a Down list; the first cell of each entry contains a number referenced by the clue lists.
For example, the answer to a clue labeled "17 Down" is entered with the first letter in the cell numbered "17", proceeding down from there. Numbers are almost never repeated; numbered cells are numbered consecutively, usually from left to right across each row, starting with the top row and proceeding downward. Some Japanese crosswords are numbered from top to bottom down each column, starting with the leftmost column and proceeding right.
This ensures a proper name can have its initial capital letter checked with a non-capitalizable letter in the intersecting clue. Diacritical markings in foreign loanwords or foreign-language words appearing in English-language puzzles are ignored for similar reasons. Straight or quick[ edit ] Some crossword clues, called straight or quick clues, are simple definitions of the answers.
Some clues may feature anagramsand these are usually explicitly described as such. Often, a straight clue is not in itself sufficient to distinguish between several possible answers, either because multiple synonymous answers may fit or because the clue itself is a homonym e.
In most American-style crosswords, the majority of the clues in the puzzle are straight clues,  with the remainder being one of the other types described below.
Crossword clues are generally consistent with the solutions. For instance, clues and their solutions should always agree in tense, number, and degree. Fill-in-the-blank clues are often the easiest in a puzzle and a good place to start solving, e. Most widely distributed American crosswords today e.
In the hands of any but the most skilled constructors, the constraints of the American-style grid in which every letter is checked usually require a fair number of answers not to be dictionary words. As a result, the following ways to clue abbreviations and other non-words, although they can be found in "straight" British crosswords, are much more common in American ones: Abbreviations, the use of a foreign language, variant spellings, or other unusual word tricks are indicated in the clue.
A crossword creator might choose to clue the answer SEN as in the abbreviation for "senator" as "Washington bigwig: The eight possible abbreviations for a position on a compasse. They can be clued as simply "Compass point", where the desired answer is determined by a combination of logic —since the third letter can be only E or W, and the second letter can be only N or S— and a process of elimination using checks.
A clue could also consist of objects that point a direction, e. In addition, partial answers are allowed in American-style crosswords, where the answer represents part of a longer phrase.
Non-dictionary phrases are also allowed in answers. As an example, the New York Times crossword of April 26, by Sarah Keller, edited by Will Shortzfeatured five themed entries ending in the different parts of a tree: The above is an example of a category theme, where the theme elements are all members of the same set. Other types of themes include: Quote themes, featuring a famous quote broken up into parts to fit in the grid and usually clued as "Quote, part 1", "Quote, part 2", etc.
Rebus themes, where multiple letters or even symbols occupy a single square in the puzzle e. For example, "Crucial pool shot?
All the theme entries in a given puzzle must be formed by the same process so another entry might be "Greco-Roman buddy? An example of a multiple-letter addition and one that does not occur at the end of the entry might be "Crazy about kitchen storage? Another unusual theme requires the solver to use the answer to a clue as another clue.
The answer to that clue is the real solution. Indirect clues[ edit ] Many puzzles feature clues involving wordplay which are to be taken metaphorically or in some sense other than their literal meaning, requiring some form of lateral thinking. Depending on the puzzle creator or the editor, this might be represented either with a question mark at the end of the clue or with a modifier such as "maybe" or "perhaps". In more difficult puzzles, the indicator may be omitted, increasing ambiguity between a literal meaning and a wordplay meaning.
This clue also takes advantage of the fact that in American-style crosswords, the initial letter of a clue is always capitalized, whether or not it is a proper noun. In this clue, the initial capitalization further obscures whether the clue is referring to "nice" as in "pleasant" or "Nice" as in the French city.
Cryptic crossword Not to be confused with cryptogramsa different form of puzzle based on a substitution cipher. In cryptic crosswords, the clues are puzzles in themselves. A typical clue contains both a definition at the beginning or end of the clue and wordplay, which provides a way to manufacture the word indicated by the definition, and which may not parse logically.
Cryptics usually give the length of their answers in parentheses after the clue, which is especially useful with multi-word answers. Certain signs indicate different forms of wordplay.
Solving cryptics is harder to learn than standard crosswords, as learning to interpret the different types of cryptic clues can take some practice. In Great Britain and throughout much of the Commonwealthcryptics of varying degrees of difficulty are featured in many newspapers. There are several types of wordplay used in cryptics. One is straightforward definition substitution using parts of a word.
The explanation is that to import means "to bring into the country", the "worker" is a worker ant, and "significant" means important. Here, "significant" is the straight definition appearing here at the end of the clue"to bring worker into the country" is the wordplay definition, and "may prove" serves to link the two.
Note that in a cryptic clue, there is almost always only one answer that fits both the definition and the wordplay, so that when one sees the answer, one knows that it is the right answer—although it can sometimes be a challenge to figure out why it is the right answer. A good cryptic clue should provide a fair and exact definition of the answer, while at the same time being deliberately misleading.
Another type of wordplay used in cryptics is the use of homophones. For example, the clue "A few, we hear, add up 3 " is the clue for SUM. The straight definition is "add up", meaning "totalize". The solver must guess that "we hear" indicates a homophoneand so a homophone of a synonym of "A few" "some" is the answer. Other words relating to sound or hearing can be used to signal the presence of a homophone clue e.
The double meaning is commonly used as another form of wordplay. This is the only type of cryptic clue without wordplay—both parts of the clue are a straight definition.
Cryptics often include anagramsas well.
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The clue "Ned T. The straight definition is "is rather bland", and the word "cooked" is a hint to the solver that this clue is an anagram the letters have been "cooked", or jumbled up. Ignoring all punctuation, "Ned T. Besides "cooked", other common hints that the clue contains an anagram are words such as "scrambled", "mixed up", "confused", "baked", or "twisted".
Embedded words are another common trick in cryptics.
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The straight definition is "bigotry", and the wordplay explains itself, indicated by the word "take" since one word "takes" another: Another common clue type is the "hidden clue" or "container", where the answer is hidden in the text of the clue itself. The answer is written in the clue: There are numerous other forms of wordplay found in cryptic clues. Backwards words can be indicated by words like "climbing", "retreating", or "ascending" depending on whether it is an across clue or a down clue or by directional indicators such as "going North" meaning upwards or "West" right-to-left ; letters can be replaced or removed with indicators such as "nothing rather than excellence" meaning replace E in a word with O ; the letter I can be indicated by "me" or "one;" the letter O can be indicated by "nought", "nothing", "zero", or "a ring" since it visually resembles one ; the letter X might be clued as "a cross", or "ten" as in the Roman numeralor "an illiterate's signature", or "sounds like your old flame" homophone for "ex".
With the different types of wordplay and definition possibilities, the composer of a cryptic puzzle is presented with many different possible ways to clue a given answer. Most desirable are clues that are clean but deceptive, with a smooth surface reading that is, the resulting clue looks as natural a phrase as possible.
The Usenet newsgroup rec. In principle, each cryptic clue is usually sufficient to define its answer uniquely, so it should be possible to answer each clue without use of the grid.
In practice, the use of checks is an important aid to the solver. Metapuzzles[ edit ] Some crossword designers have started including a metapuzzle, or "meta" for short: The designer usually includes a hint to the metapuzzle. The solution to the meta is a similar phrase in which the middle word is "or": For example, "Dimmer, Allies" would make "Demoralise" or "You, ill, never, walk, alone" would become "You'll never walk alone".
This generally aids solvers in that if they have one of the words then they can attempt to guess the phrase. This has also become popular among other British newspapers. Double clue lists[ edit ] Sometimes newspapers publish one grid that can be filled by solving either of two lists of clues — usually a straight and a cryptic.
The solutions given by the two lists may be different, in which case the solver must decide at the outset which list they are going to follow, or the solutions may be identical, in which case the straight clues offer additional help for a solver having difficulty with the cryptic clues.
Usually the straight clue matches the straight part of the cryptic clue, but this is not necessarily the case. Every issue of GAMES Magazine contains a large crossword with a double clue list, under the title The World's Most Ornery Crossword; both lists are straight and arrive at the same solution, but one list is significantly more challenging than the other.
The solver is prompted to fold a page in half, showing the grid and the hard clues; the easy clues are tucked inside the fold, to be referenced if the solver gets stuck. A variant of the double-clue list is commonly called Siamese Twins: Determining which clue is to be applied to which grid is part of the puzzle.
Other clue variations[ edit ] Any type of puzzle may contain cross-references, where the answer to one clue forms part of another clue, in which it is referred to by number and direction. When an answer is composed of multiple or hyphenated words, some crosswords especially in Britain indicate the structure of the answer.
For example, " 3,5 " after a clue indicates that the answer is composed of a three-letter word followed by a five-letter word. Most American-style crosswords do not provide this information. Major crossword variants[ edit ] These are common crossword variants that vary more from a regular crossword than just an unusual grid shape or unusual clues; these crossword variants may be based on different solving principles and require a different solving skill set.
Cipher crosswords[ edit ] Cipher crosswords were invented in Germany in the 19th century. Published under various trade names including Code Breakers, Code Crackers, and Kaidokuand not to be confused with cryptic crosswords ciphertext puzzles are commonly known as cryptogramsa cipher crossword replaces the clues for each entry with clues for each white cell of the grid — an integer from 1 to 26 inclusive is printed in the corner of each.
The objective, as any other crossword, is to determine the proper letter for each cell; in a cipher crossword, the 26 numbers serve as a cipher for those letters: All resultant entries must be valid words. Usually, at least one number's letter is given at the outset.
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English-language cipher crosswords are nearly always pangrammatic all letters of the alphabet appear in the solution. As these puzzles are closer to codes than quizzes, they require a different skillset; many basic cryptographic techniques, such as determining likely vowels, are key to solving these.
Given their pangrammaticity, a frequent start point is locating where 'Q' and 'U' must appear. Diagramless crosswords[ edit ] In a diagramless crossword, often called a diagramless for short or, in the UKa skeleton crossword or carte blanche, the grid offers overall dimensions, but the locations of most of the clue numbers and shaded squares are unspecified.
A solver must deduce not only the answers to individual clues, but how to fit together partially built-up clumps of answers into larger clumps with properly set shaded squares. Some of these puzzles follow the traditional symmetry rule, others have left-right mirror symmetry, and others have greater levels of symmetry or outlines suggesting other shapes. A variation is the Blankout puzzle in the Daily Mail Weekend magazine. The clues are not individually numbered, but given in terms of the rows and columns of the grid, which has rectangular symmetry.