Standard Genogram Symbols
Family history representations. Genealogical data can be represented in several formats, While family trees are depicted as trees, family relations do not in general form a tree in the sense of graph theory, Assuming no common ancestor, an ancestry chart is a perfect binary tree, as each person has exactly one. Family relationships may be used to describe the emotional bond between people involved in to describe the emotional bond between any two individuals in the genogram (family tree). The symbols have been enlarged for better viewing. current family relationships over three or more generations. It provides information Use the emotional relationship symbols to record intergenerational issues.
The two individuals rarely come into contact, but when they are in each other's presence, they argue and are hostile towards one another. Defines a close-hostile relationship between two individuals. These people often come into contact, but they argue and keep secrets from one another. Defines a fused-hostile relationship between two individuals. These individuals are always together and depend on each other, yet they are unable to live without arguing.
Defines a violent relationship between two individuals. The two individuals often come into conflict when they meet which results in extreme actions such as physical force or excessive power. Defines a relationship in which the two individuals rarely see each other, but when they come together, they argue and engage in violent behavior. Defines a relationship in which two individuals often come into contact, but they argue and are engaged in violent behavior when they are together.
Defines a violent behavior in an fused relationship. Fusion compromises the feelings, identities and self-direction of each, thus creating true instability.
Defines an abusive relationship. This is a generic relationship for situations in which an undertermined type of abuse occurs between two individuals. Defines a relationship in which one individual physically abuses another. It includes any non-accidental injury to an individual, typically to a child or a woman. This includes hitting, kicking, slapping, shaking, burning, pinching, hair pulling, biting, choking, throwing, shoving, whipping, and paddling.
Defines a relationship in which one individual emotionally abuses another. It includes any attitude or behavior which interferes with mental health or social development. This includes yelling, screaming, name-calling, shaming, negative comparisons to others, telling them they are "bad, no good, worthless" or "a mistake".
Defines a relationship in which one individual sexually abuses another. It includes any sexual act between an adult and child, or a forced sexual action between two adults. This includes fondling, penetration, intercourse, exploitation, pornography, exhibitionism, child prostitution, group sex, oral sex, or forced observation of sexual acts.
One might encompass all direct descendants of a single figure, or all known ancestors of a living person. Another might include all members of a particular surname e. Yet another approach is to construct a tree including all holders of a certain office, such as kings of Germany.
This relies on dynastic marriage to hold together the links between dynasties. The image of the tree probably originated with one in medieval art of the Tree of Jesse used to illustrate the Genealogy of Christ in terms of a prophecy of Isaiah Isaiah Possibly the first non-Biblical use, and the first to show full family relationships rather than a purely patrilineal scheme, was that involving family trees of the classical gods in Boccaccio 's Genealogia deorum gentilium "On the Genealogy of the Gods of the Gentiles"whose first version dates to Fan charts depict paternal and maternal ancestors.
Graph theory[ edit ] While family trees are depicted as trees, family relations do not in general form a tree in the sense of graph theorysince distant relatives can mate, so a person can have a common ancestor on their mother's and father's side. However, because a parent must be born before their child is born, a person cannot be their own ancestor, and thus there are no loops, so ancestry forms a directed acyclic graph.
The graphs of matrilineal descent "mother" relationships between women and patrilineal descent "father" relationships between men are trees however. Assuming no common ancestor, an ancestry chart is a perfect binary treeas each person has exactly one mother and one father, for two parents; these thus have a regular structure. A descendancy chart, on the other hand, does not in general have a regular structure, as a person can have any number of children, or none at all.
Notable examples[ edit ] The longest family tree in the world is that of the Chinese philosopher and educator Confucius — BCand he is the descendant of King Tang — BC. Emotional relationships[ edit ] Genograms may also include emotional relationships. These provide an in-depth analysis of how individuals relate to one another.
BBC - History - Before You Start Your Family Tree
Colour-coded lines represent various emotional relationships that bond individuals together. Social relationships[ edit ] Another component of genograms is social relationships. These allow users to link individuals who are not related to one another, but who have a connection in society-at-large, such as neighbor, co-worker, boss-employee, pastor-church member, teacher-student, etc. Social relationships can also illustrate an individual's relation to a social entity.
The use of social relationships links allows the genogram to be used in a business environment to create organizational charts or floor plan layouts of the employees. A genogram looks like a family treebut with all the different types of relationships, it contains a significantly more detailed and complete picture of the family or group it illustrates.
Genealogy[ edit ] In genealogygenograms are used to record family history through the lives of each of its members.
Genealogists can use genograms to discover and analyze interesting facts about their family history, such as a naming pattern, sibling rivalry, or significant events like immigration. Medicine[ edit ] In medicinemedical genograms provide a quick and useful context in which to evaluate an individual's health risks.
- Family Relationships in genograms
- Standard Genogram Symbols
- Before You Start Your Family Tree
And, a knowledge of diseases and illnesses that "run" in families can give individuals an important head start in pursuing effective preventive measures. A medical genogram is helpful in determining patterns of disease or illness within a family.