Native American - Native American history | guiadeayuntamientos.info
The French and Indian War was part of the Seven Years War waged between France and England. They fought for control of North America and the rich fur trade. did not like the fact that the British paid the Indians high prices for animal furs. Native American history is made additionally complex by the diverse trading, rather than raiding, relationships with the Innu, the Cree, and later the French. the region's most valuable fur-bearing animals, had been overhunted to the point . Depending on Native Americans to hunt animals for their pelts, French and Dutch colonizers cultivated friendly relationships with Native Americans through.
Instead of enslaving Native Americans in farming and mining operations, the French exploited existing inter-tribal alliances and rivalries to establish trade relationships with the Huron, Montagnais, and Algonquins along the St.
Lawrence River and further inland toward the Great Lakes.
These Native Americans competed for exclusive status as intermediaries between other Indian traders and the French. Although Native Americans did most of the work, tracking, trapping, and skinning the animals and transporting the pelts to French traders, they drove hard bargains for their furs.
French traders exchanged textiles, weapons, and metal goods for the furs of animals such as beavers, bears, and wolves. The trade strengthened traditional clan leaders' positions by allowing them to distribute these trade goods to their clan members as they saw fit.
Jesuit Catholic missionaries managed to convert considerable numbers of Huron because the priests learned the local languages and exhibited bravery in the face of danger. French officials offered additional incentive for conversion by allowing Christian Hurons to purchase French muskets.
In the eighteenth century, the Dutch and English competed with the French for trade and territory, which gave local Indians continued economic, diplomatic, and military leverage as Europeans competed for their trade and military alliances through the seventeenth century. Unlike the French and Spanish, the Dutch did not emphasize religious conversion in their relationships with Native Americans.
The New World: A Stage for Cultural Interaction
They established a fur trade alliance with the Iroquois confederacy, the most powerful Native American empire in 17th-century North America. Although smallpox and other European diseases drastically reduced the Iroquois population, the confederation remained strong because they negotiated an advantageous alliance with the Dutch. Dutch weapons helped the Iroquois to defeat the Huron, who were leaders of the other major pan-Indian confederacy in the area. As often as possible, Native Americans took advantage of rivalries among European powers to maintain or enhance their own political and economic positions.
The Iroquois quickly signed an alliance and trade treaty with the English. However, they also maintained friendly relations with the French and welcomed Jesuit missionaries into their midst. The Iroquois were generally successful at playing the French and English off one another until the English drove the French out of North America at the end of the French and Indian War For more information Axtell, James.
The Cultural Origins of North America. Oxford University Press, Concerned about Spanish claims to the Americas, the French made a number of unsuccessful attempts at settlement in the 16th century. They built and subsequently abandoned a fort near present-day Quebec in ; they also built a fort near present-day St. AugustineFloridainbut the Spanish soon forced them to abandon that facility as well. In the French successfully established a more permanent presence on the continent, founding Acadia in present-day Nova Scotia.
They did not succeed in establishing a major settlement in the south untilwhen they founded New Orleans. French colonial settlements were built on major waterways in order to expedite trade and shipping; the city of Quebec was founded in at the confluence of the St. Charles rivers, and Montreal was founded in at the conjunction of the St. Lawrence and the Ottawa rivers. Although these trading centres were lively, the settlement of northern New France was slowed by several factors.
Among these were the lucrative nature of the fur trade, which required a highly mobile and enterprising workforce—quite a different set of habits and skills than those required of farmers—and a cool climate, which produced thick furs but unpredictable harvests. In a group of investors formed the Company of New Francebut governance of the colony reverted to the king inafter the company repeatedly failed to meet the obligations of its charter.
Most of the northern locales where the French founded settlements were already occupied by various Algonquin groups or members of the Iroquoian-speaking Huron Wendat confederacy, all of whom had long used the inland waterways of the heavily forested region as trade and transportation routes. These peoples quickly partnered with the French—first as fur trappers, later as middlemen in the trade, and always as a source of staples such as corn maize. Because the Algonquin, Huron, and French were all accustomed to using marriage as a means of joining extended families, because indigenous warfare caused a demographic imbalance that favoured women, and because few women were eager to leave France for the rough life of the colonies, unions between native women and French men quickly became common.
The attitudes of missionaries in New France varied: England England focused its conquest of North America primarily on territorial expansion, particularly along the Atlantic coast from New England to Virginia. The first explorer to reach the continent under the English flag was John Cabotan Italian who explored the North Atlantic coast in By that time, the wool trade had become the driving force in the English economy; as a source of foreign exchange, wool sales softened inflation somewhat but did not render the English immune to its effects.
England responded to the pressure of inflation in several ways that influenced Native American history. One response, the intensification of wool production, ensured that the wealthy would remain secure but greatly disrupted the domestic economy. To effect the production of more wool, the landed nobility began to practice enclosuremerging the many small fields that dotted the English countryside into larger pastures. This allowed more sheep to be raised but came at a harsh cost to the burgeoning population of commoners.
The landless majority were evicted from their farms, and many had to choose between starvation and illicit activities such as theft, poaching, and prostitution. By the mids a new option arose for the dispossessed: The English elite chartered a variety of commercial entities, such as the Virginia Companyto which King James I granted the control of large swaths of American territory.
The Fur Trade - Indian Country Wisconsin - Native American Indians
These business ventures focused especially on the extraction of resources such as tobaccoa new commodity that had proved extremely popular throughout Europe. The monarch also made land grants to religious dissidents, most notably to the Puritan shareholders of the Massachusetts Bay Company, to the Roman Catholic leader Cecilius Calvertwho established the colony of Marylandand to the Quaker leader William Pennwho established the Pennsylvania colony. English settlements eventually stretched from the Chesapeake Bay north to present-day Massachusetts and included Jamestown founded inPlymouthBostonSt.
England was the only imperial nation in which colonial companies were successful over the long term, in large part because ordinary citizens were eventually granted clear and thus heritable title to land. In contrast, other countries generally reserved legal title to overseas real estate to the monarch, a situation that encouraged entrepreneurs to limit their capital investments in the colonies.
In such cases it made much more financial sense to build ships than to improve settler housing or colonial infrastructure; a company could own a ship outright but was at constant risk of losing new construction to the sovereign. Because English real estate practices more or less assured entrepreneurs and colonizers that they would retain any infrastructure they built, they set about the construction of substantial settlements, farms, and transportation systems.
A tradition of enduring title also caused the English to conclude formal compacts with Native Americans, as some of the former believed and the English courts could potentially have ruled that indigenous groups held common-law title to the various Northern American territories. As a result, tribes from Newfoundland Canada to Virginia U.
However, a fundamental philosophical difference undermined many such agreements: The situation was further complicated by the French custom, soon adopted by the English, of providing native communities with gifts on a seasonal or annual basis. What the colonizers intended as a relatively inexpensive method for currying goodwill, the indigenous peoples interpreted as something akin to rent. Although mortality was high in the malarial lowlands that the English initially settled, a seemingly endless stream of indentured labourers—and, from onward, enslaved Africans—poured into the new communities throughout the 17th century.
This effectively forestalled the formation of multiethnic households in areas that were under close colonial control. However, such households were considered unremarkable in indigenous towns. In contrast to their Spanish and French counterparts, who were invariably Roman Catholic, most English colonizers were members of the Church of England or of various Protestant sects.
Evangelization was not particularly important to most of the English elite, who traveled to the Americas for commercial, territorial, or political gain, nor for most indentured servants or criminal transportees. Among those who had left in pursuit of religious freedom, however, some proselytized with zeal. Like the clergy from France, their emphases and methods ranged from the fairly benign to the overtly oppressive.
The Netherlands and Sweden The colonial efforts of the Netherlands and Sweden were motivated primarily by commerce. Dutch businessmen formed several colonial monopolies soon after their country gained independence from Spain in the late 16th century. In a group of individuals formed the New Sweden Company. They hired Peter Minuita former governor of New Amsterdamto found a new colony to the south, in what is now Delaware, U.
In New Sweden fell to the Dutch. Despite some local successes, the Dutch ceded their North American holdings to the English after just 40 years, preferring to turn their attention to the lucrative East Indies trade rather than defend the colony see Dutch East India Company.
The English renamed the area New York and allowed the Dutch and Swedish colonists to maintain title to the land they had settled. Native Americans and colonization: Some Indian communities were approached with respect and in turn greeted the odd-looking visitors as guests. For many indigenous nations, however, the first impressions of Europeans were characterized by violent acts including raiding, murder, rape, and kidnapping. Perhaps the only broad generalization possible for the cross-cultural interactions of this time and place is that every group—whether indigenous or colonizer, elite or common, female or male, elder or child—responded based on their past experiences, their cultural expectations, and their immediate circumstances.
The Southwest Indians Although Spanish colonial expeditions to the Southwest had begun insettlement efforts north of the Rio Grande did not begin in earnest until At that time the agricultural Pueblo Indians lived in some 70 compact towns, while the hinterlands were home to the nomadic ApachesNavajosand others whose foraging economies were of little interest to the Spanish.
Acoma Pueblo New Mexicoone of many Pueblo Indian communities occupied by the Spanish during the early colonial period. As an occupying force, the Spanish troops were brutal. They continued to exercise the habits they had acquired during the Reconquista, typically camping outside a town from which they then extracted heavy tribute in the form of food, impressed labour, and women, whom they raped or forced into concubinage. The missionaries who accompanied the troops in this region were often extremely doctrinaire.
They were known to beat, dismember, torture, and execute Indians who attempted to maintain traditional religious practices; these punishments were also meted out for civil offenses. Such depredations instigated a number of small rebellions from about onward and culminated in the Pueblo Rebellion —a synchronized strike by the united Pueblo peoples against the Spanish missions and garrisons.
The Pueblo Rebellion cost the lives of some colonizers, including nearly all the priests, and caused the Spanish to remove to Mexico. The Spanish retook the region beginning inkilling an estimated native people in the initial battle. During subsequent periods, the Southwest tribes engaged in a variety of nonviolent forms of resistance to Spanish rule. Some Pueblo families fled their homes and joined Apachean foragers, influencing the Navajo and Apache cultures in ways that continue to be visible even in the 21st century.
Other Puebloans remained in their towns and maintained their traditional cultural and religious practices by hiding some activities and merging others with Christian rites. The Southeast Indians Most Southeast Indians experienced their first sustained contact with Europeans through the expedition led by Hernando de Soto — At that time most residents were farmers who supplemented their agricultural produce with wild game and plant foods.
Native communities ranged in size from hamlets to large towns, and most Southeast societies featured a social hierarchy comprising a priestly elite and commoners. Library of Congress, Washington, D. The indigenous peoples of present-day Florida treated de Soto and his men warily because the Europeans who had visited the region previously had often, but not consistently, proved violent.
As the conquistadors moved inland, tribes at first treated them in the manner accorded to any large group of visitors, providing gifts to the leaders and provisions to the rank and file.
However, the Spaniards either misread or ignored the intentions of their hosts and often forced native commoners, who customarily provided temporary labour to visitors as a courtesy gesture, into slavery. News of such treatment traveled quickly, and the de Soto expedition soon met with military resistance.
Indigenous warriors harassed the Spanish almost constantly and engaged the party in many battles. Native leaders made a number of attempts to capture de Soto and the other principals of the party, often by welcoming them into a walled town and closing the gates behind them. Such actions may have been customary among the Southeast Indians at this time—diplomatic customs in many cultures have included holding nobles hostage as a surety against the depredations of their troops.
Such arrangements were common in Europe at the time and were something with which the conquistadors were presumably familiar. However, the Spanish troops responded to these situations with violence, typically storming the town and setting upon the fleeing residents until every inhabitant was either dead or captured.
Hernando de Soto committing atrocities against Indians in Florida, engraving by Theodor de Bry in Brevis narratio eorum quae in Floridae Americae provincia Gallis acciderunt, The Southeast nations had little gold or silverbut they had accumulated a plenitude of pearls to use as decoration and in ritual activities.
The slave trade was also extremely lucrative, and many of those who survived the immediate effects of conquest were kidnapped and transported to the Caribbean slave markets. Some indigenous communities relocated to Catholic missions in order to avail themselves of the protection offered by resident priests, while others coalesced into defensible groups or fled to remote areas.
The Northeast Indians The Northeast Indians began to interact regularly with Europeans in the first part of the 16th century. Most of the visitors were French or English, and they were initially more interested in cartography and trade than in physical conquest.
Like their counterparts in the Southeast, most Northeast Indians relied on a combination of agriculture and foraging, and many lived in large walled settlements. However, the Northeast tribes generally eschewed the social hierarchies common in the Southeast. Oral traditions and archaeological materials suggest that they had been experiencing increasingly fierce intertribal rivalries in the century before colonization; it has been surmised that these ongoing conflicts made the Northeast nations much more prepared for offensive and defensive action than the peoples of the Southwest or the Southeast had been.
The discussion below considers two broad divisions: The mid-Atlantic Algonquians The mid-Atlantic groups that spoke Algonquian languages were among the most populous and best-organized indigenous nations in Northern America at the time of European landfall.
They were accustomed to negotiating boundaries with neighbouring groups and expected all parties to abide by such understandings. Although they allowed English colonizers to build, farm, and hunt in particular areas, they found that the English colonial agenda inherently promoted the breaking of boundary agreements.
The businessmen who sponsored the early colonies promoted expansion because it increased profits; the continuous arrival of new colonizers and slaves caused settlements to grow despite high mortality from malaria and misfortune; and many of the individuals who moved to the Americas from England—especially the religious freethinkers and the petty criminals —were precisely the kinds of people who were likely to ignore the authorities.
Secoton, a Powhatan Village, watercolour drawing by John White, c. Courtesy of the trustees of the British Museum The earliest conflict between these Algonquians and the colonizers occurred near the Chesapeake Bay.
This region was home to the several hundred villages of the allied Powhatan tribes, a group that comprised many thousands of individuals. In this populous area was chosen to be the location of the first permanent English settlement in the Americas, the Jamestown Colony. Acting from a position of strength, the Powhatan were initially friendly to the people of Jamestown, providing the fledgling group with food and the use of certain lands.
By friendly interethnic relations had ceased.French and Indian War Changes Fate of America
Powhatanthe leader for whom the indigenous alliance was named, observed that the region was experiencing a third year of severe drought; dendrochronology the study of tree rings indicates that this drought ultimately spanned seven years and was the worst in eight centuries.
In response to English thievery mostly of foodPowhatan prohibited the trading of comestibles to the colonists. He also began to enforce bans against poaching.
These actions contributed to a period of starvation for the colony —11 that nearly caused its abandonment. It is not entirely clear why Powhatan did not press his advantage, but after his death in his brother and successor, Opechancanoughattempted to force the colonists out of the region. His men initiated synchronized attacks against Jamestown and its outlying plantations on the morning of March 22, Within five years, colonists were flouting the new boundary and were once again poaching in Powhatan territory.
Given the persistence of the mid-Atlantic Algonquians, their knowledge of local terrain, and their initially large numbers, many scholars argue that the Algonquian alliance might have succeeded in eliminating the English colony had Powhatan pressed his advantage in or had its population not been subsequently decimated by epidemic disease.
The Iroquoians of Huronia During the 15th and early 16th centuries, warfare in the Northeast culture area fostered the creation of extensive political and military alliances. It is generally believed that this period of increasing conflict was instigated by internal events rather than by contact with Europeans; some scholars suggest that the region was nearing its carrying capacity.
Lesson summary: French and Dutch colonization (article) | Khan Academy
Two of the major alliances in the area were the Huron confederacy which included the Wendat alliance and the Five Tribes later Six Tribesor Iroquois Confederacy. The Huron were a relatively tight alliance of perhaps 20,—30, people who lived in rather dense settlements between Hudson Bay and the St.
Lawrence Riveran area thus known as Huronia. This was the northern limit at which agriculture was possible, and the Huron grew corn maize to eat and to trade to their Subarctic Indian neighbours—the Innu to the north and east and the Cree to the west—who provided meat and fish in return. The Huron confederacy is believed to have coalesced in response to raids from other Iroquoians and to have migrated northward to escape pressure from the Five Tribes to their south and southeast.
The alliance comprised the MohawkOneidaOnondagaCayugaand Seneca peoples; the Tuscarora joined the confederacy later. Evenly matched with the Huron alliance in terms of aggregate size, the Iroquois were more loosely united and somewhat less densely settled across the landscape.
While the Huron nations traded extensively for food, this was less the case for the Five Tribes, who relied more thoroughly upon agriculture. Before colonization they seem to have removed southward, perhaps in response to raids from the Huron to their north. The alliances among the Five Tribes were initiated not only for defense but also to regulate the blood feuds that were common in the region. By replacing retributory raids among themselves with a blood money payment system, each of the constituent nations was better able to engage in offensive and defensive action against outside enemies.
The Northeast was crisscrossed by an extensive series of trade routes that consisted of rivers and short portages. The Huron used these routes to travel to the Cree and Innu peoples, while the Iroquois used them to travel to the Iroquoians on the Atlantic coast. The Huron alliance quickly became the gatekeeper of trade with the Subarctic, profiting handsomely in this role.
Its people rapidly adopted new kinds of material cultureparticularly iron axes, as these were immensely more effective in shattering indigenous wooden armour than were traditional stone tomahawks. For a period of time the new weapons enabled the Huron confederacy to gain the upper hand against the Iroquois, who did not gain access to European goods as quickly as their foes.
By about the long traditions of interethnic conflict between the two alliances had become inflamed, and each bloc formally joined with a member of another traditional rivalry—the French or the English. Initially the Huron-French alliance held the upper hand, in no small part because the French trading system was in place several years before those of the Dutch and English.