Psychological Musings: Comparing Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler
[Sigmund Freud's ambition and Alfred Adler]. Freud experienced childhood trauma in the form of his relationship with his nephew, John, in whom both an. Indeed, Adler himself balked at using “perfection” to describe his single call it today; the unique ways in which one handles problems and interpersonal relations). Here again Adler differed a great deal from Freud, who felt that the things that. Interpersonal relations Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler worked together on the psychoanalytic theory for several years, but after about 8 years of working.
A primary difference in therapies was Freud's focus on the narrow scope of early childhood and it's affects but Adler's therapy focused on the present.HOW BIRTH ORDER CAN SHAPE YOUR PERSONALITY ?!
He believed the conscious aspect of the human mind was a powerful component in creating goals, and making choices. Freud thought human behavior was determined mostly by the past, and people were not free to make choices, but were compelled to react to internal and unconscious directives Corey, Both men were prolific pioneers of psychoanalysis and early psychology. Both had similar, although not identical beliefs that environmental forces such as biological and environmental conditions create limitations in the human "capacity to choose and to create" Corey,p.
Freud, however, believed these limitations played a much more influential role in human behavior than did Adler. Contemporary trends in psychoanalytic therapy aim to provide successful interventions in a shorter period of time.
Historical development It is interesting to note Adler's initial life experiences were characterized by the stress of illness and his feelings of inadequacy and inferiority, especially to his siblings. It is apparent to most students of psychological theory that these experiences weighed heavily in the development of his theories, especially that of the inferiority complex that he believed was highly influential in motivating human behavior Corey, Freud followed his own path from a deterministic view with the belief his choices were dictated by his heritage.
Of interest is the fact that one of the most creative times in his life was during an acute phase of psychiatric illness during which he suffered tremendous fear, phobias, and other "severe emotional problems" Corey,p. Many, or perhaps most of his theories were based on self analysis - one reason many of his peers believed his theories were faulty, or at least, not an adequate general analysis of humankind.
The development of both theorists may incline students to believe early development does, in fact, significantly influence lifelong development. Although Adler believed people can change, the early development of these two men seems to have been a somewhat deterministic predictor of their lifelong work. Therapist's Role In Adlerian theory, the therapist assumes the role of an information gatherer and the client's provider of an overall perspective from which the client can grow and develop.
The therapist summarizes and interprets information from the client and develops a treatment plan that includes freeing the client from overriding negative personal life narratives. Adlerian therapists use the technique of uncovering the past, as does Freud, although Adlerian therapists uncover early recollections to more articulately understanding the client Corey, The relationship between the client and the Adlerian therapist "is based on cooperation, mutual trust, respect, confidence, collaboration, and goal alignment" Corey,p.
[Sigmund Freud's ambition and Alfred Adler].
On the contrary, Freud believed the foundational role of the therapist was to encourage a transference relationship. As the analyst interprets the client's responses, the therapist uncovers unconscious directives and works toward bringing them into the client's consciousness.
The therapist must learn to react objectively to any ill effects or hostility toward the therapist because of the transference relationship Corey, Throughout this therapy, the psychoanalyst remains anonymous, in effect, to support the transference relationship.
Research Support for the Theory According to SaxFreud's theories became popular because of a lack of alternatives during the time he theorized. He further postulates Freud's theories at least provided a framework in which to understand and interpret these problems, even if the framework was not of any therapeutic value" para.
For Adler, birth order answered the question, "Why do children, who are raised in the same family, grow up with very different personalities? The position in the family constellation, Adler said, is the reason for these differences in personality and not genetics: Adler's work with addicts was significant since most other prominent proponents of psychoanalysis invested relatively little time and thought into this widespread ill of the modern and post-modern age.
In addition to applying his individual psychology approach of organ inferiority, for example, to the onset and causes of addictive behaviours, he also tried to find a clear relationship of drug cravings to sexual gratification or their substitutions.
Early pharmaco-therapeutic interventions with non-addictive substances, such as neuphyllin were used, since withdrawal symptoms were explained by a form of "water-poisoning" that made the use of diuretics necessary. Adler and his wife's pragmatic approach, and the seemingly high success rates of their treatment were based on their ideas of social functioning and well-being.
Clearly, life style choices and situations were emphasized, for example the need for relaxation or the negative effects of early childhood conflicts were examined, which compared to other authoritarian or religious treatment regimens, were clearly modern approaches.
Certainly some of his observations, for example that psychopaths were more likely to be drug addicts are not compatible with current methodologies and theories of substance abuse treatment, but the self-centred attributes of the illness and the clear escapism from social responsibilities by pathological addicts put Adler's treatment modalities clearly into a modern contextual reasoning. Homosexuality and psychology Adler's ideas regarding non- heterosexual sexuality and various social forms of deviance have long been controversial.
Along with prostitution and criminality, Adler had classified 'homosexuals' as falling among the "failures of life". Inhe began his writings on homosexuality with a page magazine, and sporadically published more thoughts throughout the rest of his life. The Dutch psychologist Gerard J.
There is evidence that Adler may have moved towards abandoning the hypothesis. Towards the end of Adler's life, in the mids, his opinion towards homosexuality began to shift. McDowell, a New York state family social worker recalls undertaking supervision with Adler on a young man who was " living in sin " with an older man in New York City.
Adler asked her, "Is he happy, would you say? Adler then stated, "Well, why don't we leave him alone. These were but ways of obtaining a slight release for a physical need while avoiding a greater obligation.
Difference Between Adler and Freud | Difference Between | Adler vs Freud
A transient partner of your own sex is a better known road and requires less courage than a permanent contact with an "unknown" sex. Work or employment, love or marriage, social contact. With regard to psychodynamic psychology, Adlerians emphasize the foundational importance of childhood in developing personality and any tendency towards various forms of psychopathology. The best way to inoculate against what are now termed "personality disorders" what Adler had called the "neurotic character"or a tendency to various neurotic conditions depression, anxiety, etc.
The responsibility of the optimal development of the child is not limited to the mother or father, but rather includes teachers and society more broadly. Adler argued therefore that teachers, nurses, social workers, and so on require training in parent education to complement the work of the family in fostering a democratic character. When a child does not feel equal and is enacted upon abused through pampering or neglect he or she is likely to develop inferiority or superiority complexes and various concomitant compensation strategies.
Spirituality, ecology and community[ edit ] In a late work, Social Interest: A Challenge to MankindAdler turns to the subject of metaphysicswhere he integrates Jan Smuts' evolutionary holism with the ideas of teleology and community: Unabashedly, he argues his vision of society: I see no reason to be afraid of metaphysics; it has had a great influence on human life and development.
We are not blessed with the possession of absolute truth; on that account we are compelled to form theories for ourselves about our future, about the results of our actions, etc. Our idea of social feeling as the final form of humanity - of an imagined state in which all the problems of life are solved and all our relations to the external world rightly adjusted - is a regulative ideal, a goal that gives our direction.
This goal of perfection must bear within it the goal of an ideal community, because all that we value in life, all that endures and continues to endure, is eternally the product of this social feeling.
Clearly, Adler himself had little problem with adopting a metaphysical and spiritual point of view to support his theories. Yet his overall theoretical yield provides ample room for the dialectical humanist modernist and the postmodernist to explain the significance of community and ecology through differing lenses even if Adlerians have not fully considered how deeply divisive and contradictory these three threads of metaphysics, modernism, and post modernism are.
Death and cremation[ edit ] Adler died suddenly in AberdeenScotlandin Mayduring a three-week visit to the University of Aberdeen. While walking down the street, he was seen to collapse and lie motionless on the pavement. As a man ran over to him and loosened his collar, Adler mumbled "Kurt", the name of his daughter and died.
The autopsy performed determined his death was caused by a degeneration of the heart muscle. Inhis ashes were rediscovered in a casket at Warriston Crematorium and returned to Vienna for burial in Ellenberger writes, "It would not be easy to find another author from which so much has been borrowed on all sides without acknowledgement than Alfred Adler. He also imagined a person to be connected or associated with the surrounding world.
Nevertheless, Freud always took Adler's ideas seriously, calling them "honorable errors. Though one rejects the content of Adler's views, one can recognize their consistency and significance. His emphasis on power dynamics is rooted in the philosophy of Nietzschewhose works were published a few decades before Adler's. Specifically, Adler's conceptualization of the "Will to Power" focuses on the individual's creative power to change for the better.
Adler was also among the first in psychology to argue in favor of feminismand the female analyst,  making the case that power dynamics between men and women and associations with masculinity and femininity are crucial to understanding human psychology Connell, They married in and had four children, two of whom became psychiatrists. Artistic and cultural references[ edit ] The two main characters in the novel Plant Teacher engage in a session of Adlerian lifestyle interpretation, including early memory interpretation.
In his lifetime, Adler published more than books and articles. Volume 12 provides comprehensive overviews of Adler's mature theory and contemporary Adlerian practice. The Neurotic Character — Volume 2: Journal Articles Volume 3: Journal Articles Volume 4: Journal Articles Volume 5: Journal Articles Volume 6: Journal Articles Volume 7: Journal Articles Volume 8: