theoretical biology - Is Insulin-Glucose dynamic Lotka-Volterra? - Biology Stack Exchange
To be able to use blood glucose for energy, your body must have insulin. “Insulin” is a substance produced naturally inside the body by an organ called the. Insulin helps your body turn blood sugar (glucose) into energy. It also helps your body store it in your muscles, fat cells, and liver to use later, when your body. Since diabetes is a disease that affects your body's ability to use glucose, let's start by looking at what glucose is and how your body controls it. Glucose is a.
Insulin in Diabetes Diabetes develops when the beta cells fail to produce enough insulin to keep blood glucose levels in a healthy range.
In type 1 diabetesthe beta cells are destroyed by the body's own immune system gone haywire. In type 2cells are resistant to insulin, and the beta cells fail to produce enough of the hormone to compensate. The goal of diabetes treatment is to normalize blood glucose levels by either increasing levels of insulin in the body or sensitizing the body to insulin.
All people with type 1 and some with type 2 require treatment with insulin to control blood glucose. There are two basic kinds of insulin used to manage diabetes: Mealtime insulin works fast and, as the name suggests, is taken just before eating to deal with the subsequent surge in blood glucose as food is digested. Background insulin is usually taken once a day and keeps blood glucose down between meals.
While both mealtime and background insulins are essentially the same protein, almost identical to the version made by the body, the medicines are formulated differently in the lab to speed or slow their absorption, respectively. Oral medications for type 2 diabetes work by either boosting the production of insulin by the beta cells or making the body less resistant to insulin. Insulin can't be taken orally because, as a protein, it would be destroyed by digestive enzymes.
Instead, it must be put into the body's tissues by syringe, pen, or pump. All of these approaches deliver insulin just under the skin. From there, it diffuses to the bloodstream, where it goes to work. Researchers are developing better and easier ways to deliver insulin and more closely match the body's need for it.
A so-called artificial pancreas using software to link a continuous glucose monitor and an insulin pump would automatically dose insulin based on blood glucose measurements. Scientists are developing injected insulins that work either faster or slower than existing versions to help people with diabetes more precisely control their blood glucose levels. Others are working on an oral form of insulin, the elusive insulin pill, as well as versions of the medication that can be inhaled.
In people who don't have diabetes, the beta cells do an essentially perfect job of doling out insulin and regulating blood glucose.
When using insulin as a medication, it is extremely difficult to achieve this precision. Well, in this situation, since there's nothing to bind to these receptors, the glucose channels won't be opened up, and the glucose will not be able to enter into the cell. And this situation is type 1 diabetes, where you've got glucose. So in theory, you have energy and you have properly-functioning insulin receptors, but you just don't have insulin to unlock the gates for the glucose-- for the glucose to actually go into the cell.
The other scenario you could imagine happening-- let me draw the cell again. So there is my cell and let me draw the blood flowing past the cell. And once again, obviously, this is just one of trillions of cells in the human body. We have an estimated 10 to trillion cells. So this is a very simple diagram, but, hopefully, it gets the point across.
So once again, let me draw some glucose floating by. Let me draw some insulin receptors on the cell. Insulin receptor there, maybe an insulin receptor right over there.
Blood sugar regulation - Wikipedia
And let's say we even have some insulin. Our pancreas is producing insulin and putting it into our bloodstream. So it's there to be used.
But a situation can arise where the receptors are not working properly or we become insensitive or desensitized to insulin. So in this situation-- sometimes maybe it might be the insulin is hard to bind or, even if it does bind, it's not working properly.Glucose Insulin and Diabetes
So the glucose will not enter the cell. I already wrote desensitized. So in either one of these scenarios-- let's just think in a very broad level. I'm not going to go into the details of the actual therapy for these diseases of how it can be cured. Oh, and I didn't even name the second one. The second one right here, as you can imagine, if this up here is type 1 diabetes, this down here is type 2 diabetes.
The simple way that-- I don't want to say that it's necessarily simple, but the way that you could manage type 1 diabetes is you can inject insulin. The only problem here-- it's a big one, though, is that there's no insulin in the bloodstream.
Everything else is working properly. So over here, we can inject insulin. And then you'll have insulin to attach to the receptors, and then the glucose can be processed properly. Type 2 diabetes-- there's multiple lines of attack.
One thing that you can do-- there are actually drugs that attempt to re-sensitize your insulin receptors. You can also do that with a combination of lifestyle changes that makes your body, I guess, more sensitized to sugar. Or you can even-- if things get severe enough, you can add insulin, just like you would do in type 1 diabetes.
And you can say, wait, I already have insulin here.
Blood sugar regulation
Why would I add more insulin? Well, remember, the cells can process insulin, but they're desensitized. They would need more insulin in order to uptake the same amount of glucose.
So if you add insulin, you could possibly have enough of a trigger that the glucose can actually be taken up. But there's multiple lines of attack here, and usually the first one are giving drugs that help, hopefully, re-sensitize or make you less desensitized to the actual insulin.
So the last thing I just want to think about a little bit is-- well, what happens if you didn't do this.