'Nehru was as much to blame as Jinnah for Partition' - guiadeayuntamientos.info India News
clearer when he writes that Jawaharlal Nehru and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel had their own reasons for rebuffing Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Left to Right: Jawaharlal Nehru, Lord Ismay, adviser to Mountbatten, Lord Mountbatten, and Mohammad Ali Jinnah. can be laid to rest, eventually maybe, optimistically, leading to better relations between India and Pakistan. (4) Iranian woman - had a child named Muhammad Ali Jinnah. (5) House-Maid (a Muslim Jawaharlal Nehru (Mubarak Ali was the real father.
His first step towards a brighter career occurred when the acting Advocate General of Bombay, John Molesworth MacPherson, invited Jinnah to work from his chambers. Dastoor, a Bombay presidency magistrateleft the post temporarily and Jinnah succeeded in getting the interim position. After his six-month appointment period, Jinnah was offered a permanent position on a 1, rupee per month salary.
A case of mistaken paternity?
Jinnah politely declined the offer, stating that he planned to earn 1, rupees a day—a huge sum at that time—which he eventually did. This controversy arose out of Bombay municipal elections, which Indians alleged were rigged by a "caucus" of Europeans to keep Sir Pherozeshah Mehta out of the council. Jinnah gained great esteem from leading the case for Sir Pherozeshah, himself a noted barrister. Although Jinnah did not win the Caucus Case, he posted a successful record, becoming well known for his advocacy and legal logic.
Before Tilak unsuccessfully represented himself at trial, he engaged Jinnah in an attempt to secure his release on bail.
Jinnah did not succeed, but obtained an acquittal for Tilak when he was charged with sedition again in He was what God made him, a great pleader. He had a sixth sense: That is where his talents lay But he drove his points home—points chosen with exquisite selection—slow delivery, word by word. Indian independence movement and Pakistan movement Jinnah in Inmany Indians had risen in revolt against British rule.
In the aftermath of the conflict, some Anglo-Indians, as well as Indians in Britain, called for greater self-government for the subcontinent, resulting in the founding of the Indian National Congress in Most founding members had been educated in Britain, and were content with the minimal reform efforts being made by the government.
Jinnah began political life by attending the Congress's twentieth annual meeting, in Bombay in December The Aga Khan later wrote that it was "freakishly ironic" that Jinnah, who would lead the League to independence, "came out in bitter hostility toward all that I and my friends had done He said that our principle of separate electorates was dividing the nation against itself.
He was a compromise candidate when two older, better-known Muslims who were seeking the post deadlocked. The council, which had been expanded to 60 members as part of reforms enacted by Minto, recommended legislation to the Viceroy. Only officials could vote in the council; non-official members, such as Jinnah, had no vote.
Throughout his legal career, Jinnah practised probate law with many clients from India's nobilityand in introduced the Wakf Validation Act to place Muslim religious trusts on a sound legal footing under British Indian law.
Two years later, the measure passed, the first act sponsored by non-officials to pass the council and be enacted by the Viceroy. He joined the following year, although he remained a member of the Congress as well and stressed that League membership took second priority to the "greater national cause" of an independent India.
In Aprilhe again went to Britain, with Gokhale, to meet with officials on behalf of the Congress. Gokhale, a Hindu, later stated that Jinnah "has true stuff in him, and that freedom from all sectarian prejudice which will make him the best ambassador of Hindu—Muslim Unity".
Muhammad Ali Jinnah - Wikipedia
By coincidence, he was in Britain at the same time as a man who would become a great political rival of his, Mohandas Gandhia Hindu lawyer who had become well known for advocating satyagrahanon-violent non-cooperation, while in South Africa. Jinnah attended a reception for Gandhi, and returned home to India in January Nevertheless, Jinnah worked to bring the Congress and League together. Inwith Jinnah now president of the Muslim League, the two organisations signed the Lucknow Pactsetting quotas for Muslim and Hindu representation in the various provinces.
Although the pact was never fully implemented, its signing ushered in a period of co-operation between the Congress and the League. Along with political leaders Annie Besant and Tilak, Jinnah demanded " home rule " for India—the status of a self-governing dominion in the Empire similar to Canada, New Zealand and Australia, although, with the war, Britain's politicians were not interested in considering Indian constitutional reform.
British Cabinet minister Edwin Montagu recalled Jinnah in his memoirs, "young, perfectly mannered, impressive-looking, armed to the teeth with dialecticsand insistent on the whole of his scheme".
She was the fashionable young daughter of his friend Sir Dinshaw Petitand was part of an elite Parsi family of Bombay. Rattanbai defied her family and nominally converted to Islamadopting though never using the name Maryam Jinnah, resulting in a permanent estrangement from her family and Parsi society. The couple's only child, daughter Dinawas born on 15 August There was unrest across India, which worsened after the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in Amritsarin which British troops fired upon a protest meeting, killing hundreds.
In the wake of Amritsar, Gandhi, who had returned to India and become a widely respected leader and highly influential in the Congress, called for satyagraha against the British.
Gandhi's proposal gained broad Hindu support, and was also attractive to many Muslims of the Khilafat faction. These Muslims, supported by Gandhi, sought retention of the Ottoman caliphatewhich supplied spiritual leadership to many Muslims.
The caliph was the Ottoman Emperorwho would be deprived of both offices following his nation's defeat in the First World War. Gandhi had achieved considerable popularity among Muslims because of his work during the war on behalf of killed or imprisoned Muslims. Gandhi's local style of leadership gained great popularity with the Indian people. Jinnah criticised Gandhi's Khilafat advocacy, which he saw as an endorsement of religious zealotry.
He opposed Gandhi, but the tide of Indian opinion was against him. At the session of the Congress in NagpurJinnah was shouted down by the delegates, who passed Gandhi's proposal, pledging satyagraha until India was independent.
Jinnah did not attend the subsequent League meeting, held in the same city, which passed a similar resolution. Because of the action of the Congress in endorsing Gandhi's campaign, Jinnah resigned from it, leaving all positions except in the Muslim League.
Jinnah sought alternative political ideas, and contemplated organising a new political party as a rival to the Congress. He showed much skill as a parliamentarian, organising many Indian members to work with the Swaraj Partyand continued to press demands for full responsible government.
Inas recognition for his legislative activities, he was offered a knighthood by Lord Readingwho was retiring from the Viceroyalty.
The review began two years early as Baldwin feared he would lose the next election which he did, in The Cabinet was influenced by minister Winston Churchillwho strongly opposed self-government for India, and members hoped that by having the commission appointed early, the policies for India which they favoured would survive their government.
A minority of Muslims, though, withdrew from the League, choosing to welcome the Simon Commission and repudiating Jinnah. Most members of the League's executive council remained loyal to Jinnah, attending the League meeting in December and January which confirmed him as the League's permanent president. At that session, Jinnah told the delegates that "A constitutional war has been declared on Great Britain.
Negotiations for a settlement are not to come from our side By appointing an exclusively white Commission, [ Secretary of State for India ] Lord Birkenhead has declared our unfitness for self-government. Jinnah, though he believed separate electorates, based on religion, necessary to ensure Muslims had a voice in the government, was willing to compromise on this point, but talks between the two parties failed.
He put forth proposals that he hoped might satisfy a broad range of Muslims and reunite the League, calling for mandatory representation for Muslims in legislatures and cabinets.
These became known as his Fourteen Points. He could not secure adoption of the Fourteen Points, as the League meeting in Delhi at which he hoped to gain a vote instead dissolved into chaotic argument.
MacDonald desired a conference of Indian and British leaders in London to discuss India's future, a course of action supported by Jinnah. Three Round Table Conferences followed over as many years, none of which resulted in a settlement. Jinnah was a delegate to the first two conferences, but was not invited to the last. His biographers disagree over why he remained so long in Britain—Wolpert asserts that had Jinnah been made a Law Lordhe would have stayed for life, and that Jinnah alternatively sought a parliamentary seat.
From then on, Muhammad Jinnah would receive personal care and support from her as he aged and began to suffer from the lung ailments which would kill him. She lived and travelled with him, and became a close advisor. Muhammad Jinnah's daughter, Dina, was educated in England and India. They even indulge in propaganda that Gandhiji was responsible for partition of the country. Many people hold Nehru responsible for partition and among them are all types of people — secular as well as communal.
The question arises who is really responsible? It is interesting to note that Indians and Pakistanis while holding their leaders responsible have completely exonerated the British rulers of their responsibility in partition. Though secular elements at times do refer to the role of the British, communal forces in both the countries have completely absolved the British.
In RSS perception main culprits are Muslims led by Jinnah while in Pakistani propaganda it is Hindus led by Gandhi who are mainly responsible for partition.
If one studies the complex developments carefully which took place in mid-fifties it is difficult to fix total responsibility on any one person or party.
Different actors played different roles adding up to partition of the country. First, let us see the role of Jinnah since he is at the centre-stage of partition issue. Before this we will also have to look at him whether he was a secular or communal. It must be noted that we cannot go by western definition of secular and communal.
We have accepted these terms in our own sense and in our own context. Gandhiji was secular despite being highly religious in his attitude. Nehru, of course, was secular more in western sense than in Indian sense.
Similarly, Jinnah was also secular more in western sense. Maulana Azad was also a deeply religious person like Gandhiji though he was more liberal in religious matters than Gandhiji. Jinnah was a thoroughly westernised person right from his younger days. He never had any religious training. He did not strictly avoid things that were deemed as taboos in Islam. He never observed religious rituals.
He even disagreed with Gandhiji about involving Ulema in politics and he opposed Gandhiji's idea of taking up Khilafat question. He believed in separation of politics from religion. He was described as Muslim Gokhale by friends. Gokhale was liberal and so was Jinnah. Jinnah was certainly a secular leader in this sense. Untilhe described himself as Indian first and then Muslim. And, until he had never thought of partition even in his dreams.
He even entered into an informal understanding with the Congress in elections in UP. His differences with Indian National Congress had begun from onwards when his demands were rejected by the Nehru committee set up by the Congress to solve communal problem. He had even ridiculed the concept of Pakistan initially propounded by Rahmat Ali, a Cambridge University student. The two-nation theory was deeply flawed and Jinnah had formulated it as a sort of political revenge against the Congress leaders like Nehru who refused to take two Muslim League nominees in the UP cabinet after Muslim League lost elections and Nehru was responsible for this.
'Nehru was as much to blame as Jinnah for Partition'
Maulana Azad tried to persuade Nehru to take the two nominees but unfortunately Nehru did not budge. Whatever the reason, politically it was unwise not to take the two Muslim League nominees in the cabinet. Maulana Azad has pointed this out and has criticised Nehru on this count in his political biography India Wins Freedom.
Jinnah took it as an outright betrayal and he decisively turned against Congress and gradually this attitude of Nehru led Jinnah to propound the two-nation theory. Thus, the two-nation theory was a politically contingent proposition rather than any religiously grounded proposition.
Had Nehru shown some political sagacity this theory would not have come into existence at all. And in no sense of the word Jinnah ever wanted to establish an Islamic state in Pakistan. He would not have even approved of Pakistan having Islam as its official religion. That was not his bent of mind. If one goes by Jinnah's speech in the Pakistan Constituent Assembly it is doubtful if he wanted even a Muslim state, let alone an Islamic state. He was all for a secular state in Pakistan.