How would you characterize the relationship between Odysseus and Circe? | Yahoo Answers
Bad Relationships. Men and women often worry when they fear their friends are getting involved in a relationship with an unsavory character. They worry their. The exchange impresses me as being solely a sexual relationship which was agreeable to both parties. That when Odysseus left Circe even. and find homework help for other The Odyssey questions at eNotes. Odysseus discovers Circe's house but chooses not to go there before informing 2 educator answers; What quotes from The Odyssey illustrate how Odysseus is a hero?.
Around the house prowled strangely docile lions and wolves, the drugged victims of her sorcery;  they were not dangerous, and fawned on all newcomers. Circe worked at a huge loom. Only Eurylochussuspecting treachery from the outset and thus not entering the mansion of Circe, escaped to warn Odysseus and the others who had stayed behind at the ship.
Hermes told Odysseus to use the herb moly  to protect himself from Circe's wizardry and, having resisted it, to draw his sword and act as if he were going to attack her. From there, Circe would ask him to bed, but Hermes advised caution, for even there the goddess would be treacherous. She would take his manhood unless he had her swear by the names of the gods that she would not.
Odysseus followed Hermes' advice, freeing his men and then remained on the island for one year, feasting and drinking wine. According to Homer, Circe suggested two alternative routes to Odysseus to return to Ithaca: She also advised Odysseus to go to the Underworld and gave him directions. Ardeas or Agrius otherwise unknown ; Latinus ; and Telegonuswho ruled over the Tyrsenoi, that is the Etruscans.
Circe eventually informed him who his absent father was and, when he set out to find Odysseus, gave him a poisoned spear. With this he killed his father unknowingly. Telegonus then brought back his father's corpse, together with Penelope and Odysseus' other son Telemachusto Aeaea.
After burying Odysseus, Circe made the others immortal. According to Lycophron 's Alexandra and John Tzetzes ' scholia on the poem -however, Circe used magical herbs to bring Odysseus back to life after he had been killed by Telegonus. Odysseus then gave Telemachus to Circe's daughter Cassiphone in marriage. Some time later, Telemachus had a quarrel with his mother-in-law and killed her; Cassiphone then killed Telemachus to avenge her mother's death.
On hearing of this, Odysseus died of grief. Dionysius of Halicarnassus 1. Rhomus, Anteiasand Ardeiaswho respectively founded three cities called by their names: RomeAntiumand Ardea. In a very late Alexandrian epic from the 5th century AD, the Dionysiaca of Nonnus, her son by Poseidon is mentioned under the name of Phaunos.
The first told the story of Odysseus' encounter with Circe. They reflect better eastern myths. Page writes that the Odyssey is a variation of Mesopotamian epic narratives. She is a daughter of Helios, the Sun god, and of the Okeanid Perse34, both non-pantheon gods.
She is a sister of Aietes and aunt of Medea, another eastern type character. Medea is a sorceress that murdered her own children, and a sister of Pasiphae of Crete, who mated with a bull to engender the Minotaur All of this women acted unconventionally, against the rules stablished by Greek society. Circe lives at Aiaia, an island situated on the East, where the sun rises and dawn has her palace and danc- ing-floor Even her palace reflects an eastern type building rather than a Greek one, sur- rounded by a park and filled with wild animals.
Brilliant writes that Circe signifies a great danger, being vice and lust the consequences for anyone encountering her She is motivated by her personal satisfaction and pleasure She uses persuasion to attract men, offering them hospitality which turns to be a trap She is portrayed as the Mistress of the Beasts, exemplified by the tame wolfs and lions that stay by her side.
It is also about the oddness of her home, a kind of paradise ruled by the goddess. A place where beasts are do- mesticated. The similarities between Circe and Aphrodite are also clear, as the latter is very much related to the East and she is also portrayed as the Mistress of the Beasts Circe is the anti-social goddess who influenced representations of posterior sorceresses and magicians.
Magicians are marginal figures of society and women were marginal in Greece. Probably women were at risk to be framed as magic practicians. Those that did not follow the established rules were at risk to be targeted. Circe is acting against these rules. She is an in- dependent woman, unmarried, living without a patron and a foreigner inhabiting the far East At some point men are divided into two groups and the group led by Eurylochos, which according to Gantz is clearly the loser42, goes to meet Circe.
Eurylochos led twenty-two men into the palace but stays outside. Then, the crew are invited to a drink and Circe transforms them into swine. Eurylochos did not en- ter the palace, as if he thought that there was some deception It is clear that when the men are entering the palace something is going to happen.
I wonder why all men were trans- formed into pigs and Eurylochos, the one who was portrayed to have bad temper and to give bad counsel, was saved from Circe. First they arrived near to where she lived. All of these characteristics reminded Greeks of their home so they felt welcomed to her palace Circe offered them honey, cheese, barley and Pramnian wine in a poisonous potion. This wel- coming drink is clearly a goddess anti-social behaviour In Ancient Greece, the hospitality 42 Gantz Instead, she offers them food for the dead, which clearly was not within hospitality customs.
It might be that the drink was offered to them with the intention of introducing the crew into her realm, the realm of the Underworld. Then she touches them with her wand, which is an aggressive and anti-social behaviour. Female usage of magical potions reflects how male and female gender was socially con- structed. Love-potions in ancient myths were mainly used by wives and concubines against their husbands and lovers The use of magical love-potions was defined as pharmakis or pharmakeutria Circe though is described as using many drugs, which in Ancient Greece was named polu-pharmakos The potion she offered Odysseus could be interpreted as an intention to make him forget his home The moly plant that Hermes gives to Odysseus is mentioned but Homer does not explain how it works.
In fact, Homer did not use much of his time in writing about the magic plant or about magic in general. The structure of the episodes tell us that Homer did make some parts long and some short and seems that the magical part of the story was made short in purpose. This seems to imply that the writer wanted to reduce the magic part in the story Regardless of the writer intentions, magic has become a big matter for discussion in modern times. This protective pharmakon is given by Hermes, who was the leader for guiding those that go to Hades He is the psychopomp of the hero.
In previous stories from Uruk and Sultantepe the 49 Faraone Underworld and Heaven were not connected. There were guides such as Hermes, who con- nected both worlds The root moly itself symbolises the theme of reversal. The root is black and the flower is white as milk56, which connects it with this reverse role of woman and her conflict with culture. After Odysseus felt threaten by Circe wand 57, his response is to sheathe the sword. The attack of Odysseus over Circe is very old, probably from the Akkadian tale of Nergal and Ereshki- gal.
Nergal and Odysseus undertake dangerous journeys and encounter powerful goddesses who are mean to men This manner of neutralising magical arts is common in other non- Greek stories.
Similar stories exist on the sanskrit story of Bhimaparakrama and on the Bedr Basim It seems that Odysseus intended to inject no harm to Circe, and its significance might be just talismanic60, just as the mentioned protective talismans used in Near Eastern cultures.
If we return now to the crew transformed into swine, Hill writes that archeological evidence probes the transformation was not just into swine, but into other wild animals such as boars, donkeys and gooses.
These findings hint at the possibility that other versions of the same sto- ry did present Circe as using her potion to convert men into different animals This might 55 Crane Stanford writes that the wand that Circe used for magic, in reality is just a long stick to control her menagerie, which she used to bring Odysseus companions out of the sty and tried to use to direct Odysseus to it.
This view is based on the fact that Circe is not a nordic witch, a place where wands were used, but a semi-oriental potion-enchantress.
As such, she used potions and sticks to drive animals, but no wands. Even odder is the episode of the stag then, which could imply that another man was converted into a wild animal.
What is the relationship between Circe and Odysseus?
If this was the case we would be speaking of cannibalism It could be interpreted as if Odysseus entered the Otherworld following the prey and returned victorious with food for his crew, which rose the morals of the group. There are folk tales from South America and India that suggest that this episode might be consistent with the motif of transformation from human to beast, a motif also recurring in the Odyssey Circe and her female companions acted out of the natural laws when mixing the beast and the human.
Just as the gods do when mixing humans with themselves The image of the Mino- taur is a good example, half beast and half human, a creature that is feared because has trans- 62 Page Odysseus has no desire for vengeance after he withstood her spell. Instead, after Circe swears an oath, he accepts her offers, he is bathed with ointment and sleeps with her. Circe then turns into gentleness and kindness, sympathising with their grieves and offering them feast and drink to revive their spirits Circe shows a blend of the beautiful and the terrible, the good and evil First she had the determination to enchant Odysseus crew and tried to enchant the hero.
But after this, she becomes best supporter, guiding them on their visit to the Under- world. She tries seducing the hero, but as she is asked to swear an oath, she shares her bed with him and becomes a beautiful companion, who offers food and wine, and sends fair winds for their journey It is also interesting to understand why Odysseus declined having dinner with Circe.
The goddess Circe on Homer's Odyssey | Javier Girona Martinez - guiadeayuntamientos.info
Some scholars believe that in Ancient Greece it was considered that having dinner together implied a more equal relationship than having sex It seems that the hero rejected supper because accepting her invitation might have implied having a wife-husband relationship. Maybe the companions were released prior them having sexual intercourse Nevertheless, it seems that Odysseus did not trust Circe as to have supper with her In Ancient Greece courtesans are portrayed as having masculine characteristics.
Circe is also a masculine character. An autonomous woman, living independently at her own house, with- out a male guard, using erotic love-potions and having aggressive behaviours against men Courtesans relied on erotic love-potions to attract men, which was a method used mainly by women.
Men used aggressive attraction spells and women used love-potions to protect exist- ing relationships. Sometimes though women used more aggressive methods to attract men It is important to remember that some authors relied mainly on literary sources, which might not reflect the reality of the time. Some other scholars believe that literary sources of the time were a way to denigrate women for their roles as cooks and healers After he evokes chthonic powers against her, she suffers same afflictions as him, which ends up bringing her into his arms.
Male poets of the time created these same literary stories, which presented love-struck fe- males performing love-potions against men. It might be that literature written by men repre- sented male collective frustrations for the power of their uncontrolled love Unfortunately, there are no enough sources to make a comparison be- tween literature and reality.
Women are presented as the Other, the unessential, the incidental as opposed to the essential. De Beauvoir believes that one of the reasons behind the alterity of women in Ancient Greek 73 Faraone In the other hand, men had the time to conquer nature and to con- trol it, including those that provided with offsprings The concept of female Otherness is the result of the threat that women pose on the patriarchal system, hence why women is por- trayed as opposite to men. She is chaos, disorder, passivity against activity, a threat to unity and Evil A binary logic that presents men against women and poses female gender as a threat to men rule.
The story of Odysseus return home is a story of change, in which the main character is forced to move from being a hero, warrior and victor, to be a stranger and a pleader that confronts various female characters such as Calypso or Circe The story of the Apologoi is a journey in which the hero asks all the characters he finds during the journey to allow him to go back home It is considered a journey that goes through a world of fantasy. Maybe it is just part of the subconscious. The sea is seen as essentially hostile Odysseus needs to go through this sea, through an en- chanted world, a world of irrationality.
The Apologoi is also a story of definition of hospitali- ty customs In the Paradise though men are also enjoying a year of normal life, with feasts and drinks, with poetry and tales84, but just after the hero past the test. He will have to overcome his suf- 78 Stratton He will have to transform himself, from the warrior to the self-conscious individual that restrains his instincts and behaves within reason.
He will have to overcome all these obstacles to return to normality, to a civilised and human world Marinatos says that Odysseus journeyed between both cosmic junctures. The Westwhich is where Calypso lives, and the East, which is where Circe resides.
Previous cultures believed that the Sun journeyed through the universe every day. It passed through the Underworld at night and regenerated itself in the morning.
It did this on a circular cycle This was believed in Egyptian, Near eastern and also in Ancient Greek society. These cultures shared the duality of up and down, east and west, which related to the contradictory behaviours of female deities. The goddess is the daughter of the Sun. Therefore, her island seems to be on the eastern side of the cosmic world. Calypso is the daughter of Atlas, who stands on the West, and her island comes right after the Island of the Sun.
Therefore, her island seems to be on the West cosmic junction The paths of day and night junction on two islands, the House of night at the West and the house of dawn at the East, where the two twin goddesses live. These junctions might signify gates or houses for the sun. This circular universe, with the two cosmic junctions, presents the West as a descent to dark- ness which is connected with Hades. This might be because her island stands half on the lower part and half on the upper part.
This is as if they followed the sun journey through darkness and then came to light, enjoying it until reaching the Island of the Sun This cosmic journey has a meaning for the hero as it poses challenges and intents to mark on him, to shape him before returning to civilisation.
Greeks did not have a word for Paradise, but in the enchanted world agriculture is not needed as the earth provides never-ending supplies.
There is no evidence of human labour. There are no signs of working the land in this world There is no need for culture, no need for the laws that Greek society is based on.
There is not even need for the gods that validate these laws