Rivers in India
The river flows through northern India and enters Bangladesh where it . unlikely ) that relations between India and Bangladesh may weaken in. Map indicating locations of India and Bangladesh · India · Bangladesh · Bangladesh and India are South Asian neighbours. Relations have been friendly, although A major area of contention has been the construction and operation of the Farakka Barrage by India to increase water supply in the river Hoogly. Bangladesh. A Map showing major rivers in Bangladesh including Jamuna. ঊঊআঐ. The Jamuna River (Bengali: যমুনা Jomuna) is one of the three main rivers of Bangladesh. It is the main distributary channel of the Brahmaputra River as it flows from India to Bangladesh.
Both Bangladesh and India made claims over the same seawater at the Bay of Bengal before settlement of the issue. Deaths along the Bangladesh—India border Deaths of Bangladeshi citizens in the Indo-Bangladesh border became one of the embarrassments between the two nation's bilateral relations in recent years. Indian officials, vowing to cut down the number of casualties at border, showed statistics that the number of Bangladeshi deaths was in a steady decline in recent years.
Border police often shoots to kill any illegal immigrants crossing the border. Human Rights Watch estimates say 1, people were killed in the area between and by Indian border security force BSF.
In Septemberthe two countries signed a major accord on border demarcation to end the 4-decade old disputes over boundaries. This came to be known as the tin bigha corridor.
Teesta River Dispute between India and Bangladesh Explained - Clear IAS
India also granted hour access to Bangladeshi citizens in the Tin Bigha Corridor. The agreement included exchange of adversely held enclaves, involving 51, people spread over Indian enclaves in Bangladesh and 51 Bangladesh enclaves in India. The total land involved is reportedly acres. Bangladesh officials believe the export would greatly ease the national shortage once MW flows into the national grid. The two country's Prime Ministers also unveiled the plaque of the 1,MW coal-fired Rampal power plant, a joint venture between the two countries.
The ceremony which includes parades, march-past and lowering of the national flag of both the countries is now a daily routine, at sundown, on the eastern border.
On 7 May the Indian Parliament, in the presence of Bangladeshi diplomats, unanimously passed the Land Boundary Agreement LBA as its th Constitutional amendment, thereby resolving all year old border disputes since the end of the British Raj.
The bill was pending ratification since the Mujib-Indira accords. In Juneduring her first official overseas visit, Foreign Minister of India, Sushma Swaraj concluded various agreements to boost ties. Easing of Visa regime to provide 5 year multiple entry visas to minors below 13 and elderly above Proposal of a special economic zone in Bangladesh. However, West Bengal and Sikkim opposed an interim deal, since then the deal was shelved and remains unsigned due to the objections of West Bengal.
The federal angle of the Teesta River Issue Article of Indian Constitution gives power to the Union Government to enter any transboundary river water related treaty with a riparian state. The centre cannot do it arbitrarily without taking into consideration the social, political and eco-impact of such a treaty in the catchment area.
Inthe West Bengal government commissioned a study on the Teesta issue under the noted hydrologist Kalyan Rudra. This is not acceptable to Bangladesh, where the water is required mainly during December — April period which is considered to be the leanest. Many of the glaciers on the Teesta river basin have retreated, says a strategic foresight group, a Mumbai think tank. Estimates suggested that Teesta River has a mean average flow of approximately 60 billion cubic meters, of which significant amount flows during June and September and October to April is considered to be a lean season.
The greater Ganges is the pivot of the deltaic river system of the historical region of Bengal.
The greater Ganges Delta covers some 23, square miles 60, square kmthe bulk of it in southwestern Bangladesh. The Ganges in Bangladesh is known as the Padma, and it is divided into two segments, the upper Padma and the lower Padma. The river enters Bangladesh from the west and constitutes, for about 90 miles kmthe boundary between Bangladesh and West Bengal. As it flows farther into Bangladesh, the upper Padma forms numerous distributaries and spill channels and reaches its confluence with the Jamuna west of Dhakaafter which their combined waters make up the lower Padma—which, from a hydrological perspective, is the Padma proper.
The lower Padma flows southeast to join the Meghna near Chandpur and enters the Bay of Bengal through the Meghna estuary and lesser channels. Its waters appear muddy owing to the volume of silt carried by the river. Silt deposits build temporary islands that reduce navigability but are so highly fertile that they have been for decades a source of feuds among peasants who rush to occupy them. The Meghna is formed by the union of the Sylhet-Surma and Kusiyara rivers.
These two rivers are branches of the Barak Riverwhich rises in the Nagar-Manipur watershed in India. The main branch of the Barak, the Surma, is joined near Azmiriganj in northeastern Bangladesh by the Kalni and farther down by the Kusiyara branch. The Dhaleswaria distributary of the Jamuna River, joins the Meghna a few miles above the junction of the lower Padma and the Meghna.
As it meanders south, the Meghna grows larger after receiving the waters of several rivers, including the Buriganga and the Sitalakhya. The Jamuna and its adjoining channels cover a large area from north-central Bangladesh to the Meghna River in the southeast.
The Tista is the most important water carrier of northwestern Bangladesh. Rising in the Himalayas near SikkimIndia, it flows southward, turning southeast near Darjiling Darjeeling to enter Bangladesh, where it eventually meets the Jamuna.
Four main rivers constitute the river system of the Chittagong Hills and the adjoining plains—the Feni, the Karnaphuli, the Sangu, and the Matamuhari.
Flowing generally west and southwest across the coastal plain, they empty into the Bay of Bengal. Of these rivers the longest is the Karnaphuliwhich is dammed at Kaptai, about 30 miles 50 km upstream from its mouth near the city of Chittagong. The headwaters of the Surma are in India ; the upper Padma rises in Nepal and the Jamuna in Chinabut they too reach Bangladesh across Indian territory.
Thus, Bangladesh lacks full control over the flow of any of the streams that irrigate it. The construction of a barrage upstream at Farakka in West Bengal has led to the diversion of a considerable volume of water from the Ganges in India, and the flow to western Bangladesh is insufficient in the dry season, from November to April. Soils There are three main categories of soils in Bangladesh: The fertile recent alluvial soils, found mainly in flooded areas, are usually clays and loams, variously pale brown, sandy, chalky, and mica-laden.
They are deficient in phosphoric acidnitrogen, and humus but not in potash and lime. The old alluvial soils in the jungles of the Barind and Madhupur regions are dark iron-rich brown or reddish clays and loams. They are sticky during the rainy season and hard during the dry periods.