Saro (Nigeria) - Wikipedia
The contents were emptied onto what soon became a large mound on the surface of the water and soon after, the winged-beasts began to scatter this around until the point where it gradually made into a large patch of dry land; the various indentations they created eventually becoming hills and valleys.
The land became fertile and plant life began to flourish. From handfuls of earth he began to mold figurines. Meanwhile, as this was happening on earth, Olodumare gathered the gases from the far reaches of space and sparked an explosion that shaped into a fireball. He subsequently sent it to Ife, where it dried much of the land and simultaneously began to bake the motionless figurines. It was at this point that Olodumare released the "breath of life" to blow across the land, and the figurines slowly came into "being" as the first people of Ife.
The term is also translated as "Deities" or "Divinities" or "Gods". Even though the term Orisha is often used to describe both classes of divine entitiesit is properly reserved for the former one. Babalawos are Orumila's suburdinate as priests and followers. Best referred to as "The Trickster", he deals a hand of misfortune to those that do not offer tribute or are deemed to be spiritual novices.
Also regarded as the "divine messenger", a prime negotiator between negative and positive forces in the body and an enforcer of the "law of being". The school has to arrange for the students opportunities to participate in social services, health campaigns, development plans, and other public activities. The divorce between school and community is likely to make teaching artificial. Community according to Jones and George refers to physical location like towns or cities or to social milieus like ethnic neighbourhoods in which an organization is located.
A 2 community provides an organization with the physical and social infrastructure that allows it to operate; it utilities and labour force; the homes in which its managers and employees live; other organization such as hospital, town services, carriers and theatres that service their needs and so on.
The above definition clearly describes school community. The school community physical locations are the towns or cities in which it is located. The schools source their physical and social infrastructure from its communities.
To Hornbycommunity refers to "a group of people of the same religion, race, occupation, etc or with shared interest". To Omolayolein the urban centre, "community will normally refer to all those with common interest living in a given ideographical space not considered too large to make it unwieldy whereas in the rural areas, the community will strictly comprise people with the same origin". Strictly speaking and for the purpose of the paper the definition on rural area is adopted for the concept of local community.
School Community Relationship The processes of social interaction are the bases for creating social relationship. According to Calhoun, Light and Keller social relationship is relatively enduring patterns of interaction between two or more people.
Most people have many social relationships, from casual acquaintance to intimate friendships and close family bond. School community relationship is a two-way symbiotic arrangement through which the school and the community co-operate with each other for the realization of goals of the community and vice versa. School as an open system and a social organization thrives on the effective interrelationship within it and with its relevant communities.
This means that community builds its schools and the schools build their community Sidhu, Therefore, school community interdependence is unbreakable. There is a reciprocal relationship. The two works for one another and the two have direct impact on one another. This means that the school cannot exist in isolation but in co-operation with the community in which it finds itself Ihebereme, This school is not a place where only the children are educated by the whole community.
The school building, furniture, equipment, human resources, etc.
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They should be unhesitatingly placed at the disposal of the community after school hours. The school teachers should also come forward and place their knowledge and experience at the disposal of community and assume the role of guides and leaders of the social group. The school library and play grounds can especially be of significant service to the community Ihebereme, Nieto contends that student achievement is positively associated with parent involvement in school and that, school which encourage high levels of parent involvement outperform their counterparts where there are lower levels of involvement.
AccordingPawlas identified six types of school community relationship: Schools and communities relate as parents of a student. Families must provide for the health and safety of children, and maintain a home environment that encourages learning and good behaviour in school.
Schools provide training and information to help families understand their children development and how to support the changes they undergo. School must reach out to families with information about the school programmes and student reports, as well as new information on topics such as school choice and making the transition from elementary school to higher grades. Communication must be in forms that families find it understandable and useful. Parents can make significant contribution to the environment and functions of a school.
School can get the most out of this process by creating flexible schedules, so more parents can participate, and by working to match the talents and interest of parent to the needs of students, teachers, and administrators. With the guidance and support of teachers, family members can supervise and assist their children at home with homework assignment and other school related activities.
School can give parents meaningful roles in the school decision making process, and provide parents, with training and information so they can make the most of 5 those opportunities. This opportunity should be open to all segments of the community, not just people who have the most time and energy to spend on school affairs.
Collaboration with the Community: Schools can help families gain access to support services offered by other agencies such as health care, cultural events, tutoring service, and after school child care programmes. They also can help families and community groups provide services to the community, such as recycling programmes and food pantries.
Importance of School Community Relationship School community relationship is today gaining more grounds than ever before. School administrators all over the world are paying more attention to the role of communities in managing schools. Hence the idea school based management is always on promotion.
According to Fiore when families, schools and community institutions e. He identifies the followings as the importance of school community relationship: Schools enjoy the informed support of families and community members. Benefits accrue to the staff of schools and community agencies as well: Communities can provide schools with a context and environment that can either complement and reinforce the values, culture, and learning the school provide for their students or negates everything the school strive to accomplish.
Communities can furnish schools and students in them with crucial financial support system as well as the social and cultural values necessary for success and survival in contemporary society. Communities have the potential to extend a variety of opportunities to students and to their families-social, cultural and vocational. Schools, in turn, offer communities a focal point of educational services for children. Schools have the potential to build well-educated citizens ready to take on responsibilities as contributing community members.
By working together, schools, families, and communities can prepare for a more promising future. In urban communities struggling against violence, unemployment, and deteriorating institutions, school- community relationship offers hope for those who may have given on the social institution in their neighbourhood and cities.
Rural communities searching for opportunities to revitalize themselves in a technologically sophisticated society can discover ways to bring themselves into the information age by intertwining school and community improvement initiatives. Community participation in school activities helps community membershave a more positive view of the school.
It helps children have better attendance, better behaviour and high academic achievement motivation. Community members need to be supportive by involving themselves in school programmes and activities such as Parent-Teacher Association PTA meetings, athletic events, plays, parties and other related engagements.
Despite all the benefits associated with such involvement, many community members do not regard engagement in school programmes with all seriousness Okubanjo, Nieto 7 contends that student achievement is positively associated with parent involvement in school and that, school which encourage high levels of parent involvement outperform their counterparts where there are lower levels of involvement.
According to Idaho Falls School District school community relationship helps to improve the quality of education for all children. The school noted the following as some of the importance of school community relationship: It helps parents and other citizens recognize their responsibility for the quality of education provided by their schools; 2.
It fosters community understanding of the need for constructive change and solicit community advice on how to achieve stated school goals; 3. It involves community members in the work of the schools and the solving of school problems. It helps identifies non-parent groups such as senior citizens and promote the involvement of these persons in school activities and programmes; 5.
It helps earn the good will, respect and confidence of the community with regard to school staff and services; 6. It promotes a genuine spirit of cooperation between the school and the community and sets up channels of sharing the leadership in improving community life; 7. It helps develop community understanding of all aspects of school operation; it ascertains community attitudes towards issues in school; it helps discover the community aspirations for the education of their children; 8.
It helps secure adequate financial support for a sound school programme. Partnering according to Michigan State University requires give and-take conversation, goal setting for future, and regular follow-up interaction. School community partnership should be considered as connections between school and community resources. The area of this partnership according to Yelena Mitrofanova Extension Education n. Use of School or Neighbourhood Facilities: Schools and Communities can partner with each other in the use of different facilities.
These kinds of partnerships are forged between schools and organisations. The partnerships are often made between local business and schools. The aims of these partnerships focused on exposing students to careers and work skills, with the sponsoring organisation benefiting from free or cheap labour.
Collaborative Fund Raising and Grant Application: The school and community collaborate in raising funds needed for educational process. They develop a written plant that includes measurable goals and accountability for how funds are used and what results are expected.
They will use a strength based planning process to identify assets, assess needs and gaps programmes, resources and other partners.
Another important area of school community relationship is area of volunteering. While most of the volunteers are likely to be parents, such a volunteer service or programme need not be restricted to parents.
According to Lucas and Thomspson n. Mention at home and school meetings, articles in the school newsletter or local newspaper, mention in the annual report or an annual social event especially for volunteers are all ways of honouring volunteers. They suggest a number of activities which might be carried out by volunteers. Schools are often offered technical support from outside consultants. The effectiveness of these consultants varies. In some cases, experts are brought into the school to give a workshop.
On improving or building content in a certain area, when what is needed is more proves-oriented work geared toward overcoming organizational interpersonal, or philosophical barriers. Information Sharing and Dissemination: Schools and Communities share and disseminate information through communication with each other. Communication involves sharing and transmitting message ideas or attitudes among administrators, teachers, students, parents and other interested constituents.
Information sharing and dissemination is a give-and-take process that requires perfect partnership between schools and communities for a better result. Communication as a factor that influences school community relation is a very important tool to achieve or accomplish the aims, goals, and aspiration of the school. Communication is the complex techniques under the control of management, which may be used to relate directly with people outside the school and potential students Oguntunde, Yet, most parents typically hear from the school only when their child is in trouble.
Ijaiya identifies five 10 method of communication: Written type as in reports, letters, memos, minutes of meetings, email, telex; oral type as in conversations, oral interview,meetings, telephone, conference; visual type as in charts, television, videos, graphs, diagrams and body language; electronic type as in telephone and computer network; and Audio visual as in television and videos.
Communicating with parents is a necessity if a school principal expects them to support the school. But there are other community members who might benefit from receiving accurate information from a school and who should be given opportunities to communicate with a school. Among those people are senior citizens, childless couples, newly married couples Pawlas, Members of the community can take active roles in facilitating the educational experiences of young people.
Getting to know you: The project was designed to encourage interactions between students and the elders in their community, through the sharing of different responsibility. Agencies for School Community Relationship An agency can simply be referred to as a government department, organization or business corporation that provides a particular service especially on behalf of community or other ognisations.
For many schoolsto succeed with their educational mission, they must have the support of community agencies such as family members, neighbourhood leaders, business groups, religious institutions, public and private agencies, libraries, recreation, community based 11 organisations, civic groups and local government.
Reciprocally, many community agencies can do their job better by working closely with schools Michigan State Board of Education, Lucas and Thompson n. The following list reflects community agencies that could or currently partner with schools Yelena Mitrofanova Extension Educator n. Municipal Agencies and Bodies Courts, Civic event units. Community Based-Organizations Farmers clubs, Economic development groups, Community development corporations, Civic associations, etc. Role of Community Agencies in School Community Relationship There are many community agencies that play very important roles in school community relationship.
These agencies according to Bakwai include the following: For a good school community relationship to be established, schools need the support of traditional rulers for community mobilization. School can also work in collaboration with traditional rulers by giving them some incentives.
This will make the rulers call the attention of their followers towards co-operating and supporting the programmes of the school.
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Traditional rulers can also be used for dissemination of information. All religious leaders are answerable to traditional rulers and can be directed to sell any good idea about school and education to their followers. Traditional rulers play another important role in bringing parents into the school by summoning them to the king palace where important school issues and problems can be discussed.
Traditional rulers can also do a good work in bringing community into school by acting as official in P. A or a special member in school boards and school committees.
Police and vigilante groups could be resorted to when it comes to issue of security. In terms of security of the school and its facilities, school when related well with police and vigilante groups, it can enjoy a great deal of security.
Working in co-operation 13 with police command, and providing some little allowances to patrol teams, school can enjoy the support of security agencies in the community. Power Holding Company of Nigeria: Power Holding Company of Nigeria can decide to subsidize school bill for power consumption.
It can volunteer for the repairs and installation of the school electrical fittings and equipment.
State Water Board on its side, can help in providing additional piping or introducing the piping in case of a school that does not have the pipe line before.
The Water Board can also help in fixing some spoiled pipes and pumps in the school. With good relationship, media housescould help promote the school relationship with the communities through information dissemination.SECONDARY SCHOOL GIRLS / TRENDING MOVIES / NIGERIAN MOVIES
Hospitals, clinics and dispensaries could relate with the school for health care delivery. Other important communityagencies which schools need are sister schools for exchange of ideas and mutual support and parents for volunteer services, moral support and discipline of students.
Senior citizens also can help solicit community support for the school as some of them are respected members in political parties, forums associations, ministries, business corporations and traditional councils.
When these citizens are involved into school affairs, they can help in soliciting financial support from the community for the school and its programmes. They can lobby government to approve some of the proposed school programmes. On the other hand, the school can contribute so much to the community.
The community depends on the school for the provision of manpower needed for its continued existence as the students go back to the community when they schooled.
Most of school employees are hired from the communities and live in the community. The community also depends on the school hall for their meetings, playground for their cultural activities and the school building, can also be put to use in times of emergency.
Agabi and Okorie in Agabi, Okorosaye-orubite, Ezekiel-Hart and Egbezor noted that the classrooms are used for adult literacy activities nationwide, for public health activities like immunizations and public enlightenment exercises and in emergency epidemic situations, school building are converted into makeshift hospitals.
School buildings are also put into use during voting exercises. Importance of School Resources in Promoting School Community Relationship School resources are very important in promoting school community relationship. Some Saro workers were retired without pension and suffered much financial deprivation. The retired Saros asked to return home, and some were transported back with the help of colonial funds.
The lack of promotion and retirement faced by immigrant Africans was partly as a result of a systemic wall against promotion of Saros and Africans by the British. The Saros in Lagos, Port Harcourt and Abeokuta had earned the irritation of Europeans because of the achievement of a few immigrants in the clergy and business world. The idealistic revolt against the British was led in the missionary by James Johnson who decried excessive British interference in the affairs of the missionary society and who wanted more African involvement in promoting Christianity.
Amaros[ edit ] Unlike the Saros who were principally from Sierra Leone, the Amaros, who were sometimes called Nago in Brazil Nago indicates Yoruba ethnicitywere liberated slaves from Brazil and Cuba. Returnees from Brazil and Cuba and their current-day descendants were and are more commonly called "Agudas". They went to the New World as slaves from different sub-ethnic and ethnic backgrounds but approached relationships among themselves as equals.
They came back to Nigeria, principally, to re-connect with their fatherland.
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In Lagos, their neighborhood became known as Popo Aguda, Brazilian quarter. They were not brought up in the Anglican faith like the Sierra Leoneans, but Catholicismthe dominant religion in Brazil and Cuba. Some of the Agudas were Muslims. These Amaros gave Portuguese and Spanish names in Nigeria. The Brazilian returnees were notably technically skilled artisans and were known for the distinctive Brazilian architecture built in their settlements and later in the Lagos environs.
During this time, modern European architecture was not only meant to be a nice abode but also a dominating advertisement to show Africans of a different style and culture. The Brazilians introduced to Nigeria elaborate architectural designs, two-story buildings and bungalows with stucco facades.