Marianne in Therapy » JASNA
What is up with this ending? Sympathetic readers have been puzzling over the conclusion to Sense and Sensibility since the novel's arrival on the literary scene. Jane Austen rewards her heroines with a marriage at the end of her novels but the question arises as to whether these marriages are a sign of poetic justice. Eighty or so years after Sense and Sensibility was published, Marianne might have after Marianne has received Willoughby's letter, ending their relationship: . For instance, when Marianne finally returns home, she resists the sadness she .
She becomes the available older authority figure, making it easy for Marianne to associate or transfer the relationship with her mother to her sister. Elinor starts to care for Marianne as a mother would care for an ailing child, and Marianne allows herself to be cared for in this way.Sense and Sensibility (8/8) Movie CLIP - Happy Tears (1995) HD
It is no accident that Mrs. She reenters the narrative when Marianne lies ill, barely conscious, and she competently helps to nurse her back to health. Secure attachment, positive states of mind, and even mental health are never a done deal. Throughout our lives, we continue to seek the security provided by attachment relationships, turning to close others for support, especially in times of stress. We find resonance comforting in and of itself, even when circumstances cannot be ameliorated.
We continue to want the positive regard of others, even if we already possess good self-esteem. And we co-regulate or dysregulate with others throughout our lives.
Affective empathy is at the heart of such behaviors; it is the foundation of security, self-esteem, effective self-regulation, and many other positive mental states. We are not alone as a species in our need for resonance.
All mammals bond through emotional connections: But for humans, the presence or absence of affective empathy involves an additional dimension, signaling that validation is a more abstract, complex, and general sense. Resonance is crucial to intra- and inter-personal functioning for humans and I suspect the other great apesin ways that percolate more subtly through feelings, moods, and enduring traits of character.
A lack of resonance also adds an extra dimension of pain to loneliness and missed connections. Dogs will become depressed and non-functional if deprived of social connection, but I doubt they suffer the agony of low self-esteem or an existential sense of isolation.
Attunement appears to distinguish this relationship right from the start. Marianne and Willoughby have the same tastes and opinions, but this agreement matters only because it demonstrates how exquisitely they resonate with one another. Their attunement lies in their love for one another, which organizes itself around other shared feelings and experiences.
- Sense and Sensibility
Or so it seems. In the heartless letter that ends her hopes, Willoughby denies having felt anything but mild friendship for Marianne and virtually accuses her of having imagined their love: That I should ever have meant more you will allow to be impossible, when you understand that my affections have long been engaged elsewhere.
Long after Marianne knows that Willoughby has jilted her, his feelings and motives continue to matter.
I know he did. Whatever may have changed him now, and nothing but the blackest art employed against me can have done it, I was once as dear to him as my own soul could wish. This lock of hair, which now he can so readily give up, was begged of me with the most earnest supplication. Had you seen his look, his manner, had you heard his voice at that moment!
How can she trust herself, or anyone else, ever again? Teasing out the implications of this feeling a bit further, we can say that, in that case, Marianne would be condemned to a kind of cosmic loneliness, imprisoned within her own perceptions and alone with her own feelings because she is unable to connect emotionally in the ways that people connect with one another.
The experience is annihilating, and the definition of this word is worth citing. Such feelings of annihilation can lead to suicidal despair. As psychologist Thomas Joiner observes, suicidal thinking involves feelings of not belonging and of being ineffectual, powerless to make a mark on the world you live in, which is how Willoughby has made Marianne feel. Ironically, by imagining herself dead, Marianne rediscovers the validation that had been lost to her in her depression. How could you have consoled her?
By picturing the devastating effects of a real rather than a psychological annihilation, Marianne is able to find herself again, present in the minds and hearts of those who love her, and so present to herself as well. As if in reward for being able to turn away from the annihilating deathblow delivered by Willoughby and to focus on the affirmation she finds in the love of her family, Marianne finds out that her perceptions about Willoughby had been accurate. When she lies ill, Willoughby comes to see Elinor in the dead of night with a message for Marianne.
He tells Elinor that he had indeed loved Marianne, that his feelings for her were genuine, and that he disregarded them to marry a woman whose fortune would pay his debts and enable him to gratify his expensive tastes. The cruel letter that nearly killed Marianne had been dictated by the woman who is now his wife.
He regrets his decision and wants Marianne to know that their love was real. Fortunately, Elinor can assure Marianne that what she saw and felt was real: Willoughby did love her.
Third-person omniscience might be thought of as a kind of empathy with fictional people. Disapproval generally focuses on the value of empathy as a moral force. Critics argue that empathy is prone to bias, that we tend to have empathy for those who are like us or close to us, and with individuals rather than groups.
Other motives such as guilt or the desire to do the right thing can lead to better outcomes than empathy. The drawbacks of empathy might have much to do with our social development as a species. Empathy does tend to be evoked by the plight of individuals, but for most of the history of homo sapiens sapiens, society consisted of individuals, with each person known to the entire community.
Humans were hunter gatherers for millennia. Therapy, even group therapy, is largely a matter of individuals interacting with one another, and this dynamic might be why, in a therapeutic context, empathy is generally seen as an important and benevolent force. I discuss the psychological and neurobiological characteristics of romantic love in chapter 6 of my book Jane on the Brain: Works Cited Abela, John R. All things Jane Austen 13 Feb. The Science of Evil: On Empathy and the Origins of Cruelty.
Bernier, Annie, and Mary Dozier. Evidence from Interpersonal and Attachment Research. Theory, Research, Practice, Training The Case for Rational Compassion. American Psychological Association, A Case for a Narrow Conceptualization.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Decety, Jean, and Meghan Meyer. A Social Developmental Neuroscience Account.
AS - Poetic Justice, Endings and Epilogues in Sense and Sensibility
Development and Psychopathology 20 Michael Hersen and William Sledge. Attachment across the Lifecourse: Women, Politics, and the Novel.
Why People Die by Suicide. Jane on the Brain: Approaching Sense and Sensibility through Cognitive Therapy. The Economy of Character: When the Body Says No: Exploring the Stress-Disease Connection. Adolescence in Sense and Sensibility. When Willoughby's aunt and benefactress Lady Allen learned of his behavior, she disinherited him and so he chose to marry for money. Lucy is invited to stay with John and Fanny.
Lucy, believing she has a friend in Fanny, confides her clandestine engagement to Edward and is thrown out of the house. Edward's mother demands that he break off the engagement. When he refuses, she arranges to have his fortune transferred to his younger brother, Robert. On hearing this, Colonel Brandon offers Edward the parish on his estate, feeling sympathy for the unfortunate but honorable Edward.
On their way home to Devonshire, Elinor and Marianne stop for the night at the country estate of the Palmers, who live near Willoughby's estate. Marianne cannot resist going to see the estate and becomes gravely ill walking in torrential rain. Colonel Brandon finds her in the rain and brings her home.
Elena Ferrante on Sense and Sensibility: ‘I was passionate about Austen's anonymity’
Elinor stays at her side until she recovers, and the sisters return home. Colonel Brandon and Marianne begin spending time together as Marianne has a new appreciation for him. She admits to Elinor that even if Willoughby had chosen her, she was no longer convinced that love would have been enough to make him happy.
The Dashwoods soon learn that Miss Steele has become Mrs.
Ferrars and assume she is married to Edward. Later when Edward visits their house, they learn that Miss Steele jilted him in favor of his brother Robert.
Edward proposes to and marries Elinor. Edward becomes a vicar under the patronage of Colonel Brandon, whom Marianne marries. Willoughby is seen watching their wedding from a distance, and then rides away. Production[ edit ] Conception and adaptation[ edit ] InLindsay Doranthe new president of production company Mirage Enterpriseswas on a company retreat brainstorming potential film ideas when she suggested the Jane Austen novel Sense and Sensibility to her colleagues.
Just when you think you know what's going on, everything is different. It's got real suspense, but it's not a thriller. A week after its completion, the producer selected Thompson to adapt Sense and Sensibility,  although she knew that Thompson had never written a screenplay.
Sense and Sensibility: Deconstructing the ‘happy-ending’
I learned about screenwriting at her feet. Doran later recalled the work was criticized for not getting underway until Willoughby's arrival, with Edward sidelined as backstory. Thompson and Doran quickly realised that "if we didn't meet Edward and do the work and take that twenty minutes to set up those people She was considered a risk, as her experience was as an actress who had never written a film script.
Columbia Pictures executive Amy Pascal supported Thompson's work, and agreed to sign as the producer and distributor.
In panic Thompson called fellow actor and close friend Stephen Frythe host of QI and a self-professed "geek". After seven hours, Fry was able to recover the documents from the device. He was not familiar with Jane Austen. Of course, the dry sense of humour, the sense of decorum, the social code is different. But the essence of social repression against free will — I grew up with that. I was brought up in Taiwan, what do I know about 19th-century England?
Sense and Sensibility - Wikipedia
About halfway through the script it started to make sense why they chose me. In my films I've been trying to mix social satire and family drama. I realised that all along I had been trying to do Jane Austen without knowing it.
Jane Austen was my destiny. I just had to overcome the cultural barrier. Main characters of Sense and Sensibility Hugh Grantwho had worked with Thompson in several films, was her first choice to play Edward Ferrars.