Lymphatic System: Facts, Functions & Diseases
The lymphatic and blood circulation system are closely linked but they . direct connection between the blood and lymph circulatory systems. The human lymphatic system, showing the lymphatic vessels and lymphoid organs. blood system by way of lymphatic channels and ducts. To understand leukaemia, it helps to know a bit about the blood and the lymphatic system.
It too has tiny vessels known as lymphatic capillaries, but these capillaries have small holes in their walls that allow the fluid to pass through.
This fluid is called lymph. There is no heart-like pump for the lymphatic system. Instead, as you breathe and move your muscles, the lymph continuously gets pushed toward the heart from the outer reaches of your body. First the lymph moves out of the lymphatic capillaries and into larger lymphatic collector vessels. These vessels have muscular walls and one-way valves that keep the lymph moving in the right direction.Difference Between Circulatory System and Lymphatic System
Many of the lymphatic vessels sit just under the surface of your skin. James Hamrick, chief of medical oncology and hematology at Kaiser Permanente in Atlanta. When bacteria are recognized in the lymph fluid, the lymph nodes make more infection-fighting white blood cells, which can cause swelling.
The swollen nodes can sometimes be felt in the neck, underarms and groin, according to the NLM. Lymphadenopathy is usually caused by infection, inflammation, or cancer.
Comparison of Blood and Lymph Vessels « Lymphedema Blog
Infections that cause lymphadenopathy include bacterial infections such as strep throat, locally infected skin wounds, or viral infections such as mononucleosis or HIV infection, Hamrick stated. In some areas of the body the enlarged lymph nodes are palpable, while others are to deep to feel and can be seen on CT scan or MRI. This can happen in lupus, according to Hamrick. Lymphoma is cancer of the lymph nodes. It occurs when lymphocytes grow and multiply uncontrollably.
There are a number of different types of lymphoma, according to Dr. Sharman, director of research at Willamette Valley Cancer Institute and medical director of hematology research for the U. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is more common of the two, according to the Lymphoma Research Foundation. This most commonly occurs in women who have had surgery to remove a breast cancer. Part of the operation to remove the breast cancer involves removing lymph nodes in the armpit.
The Lymphatic System
The more lymph nodes removed the higher the risk of chronic bothersome swelling and pain due to lymphedema in the arm, Hamrick explained. From the research, they estimated that the risk of developing anaplastic large cell lymphoma in the breast after getting implants is 1 in 35, at age 501 in 12, at age 70, and 1 in 7, at age The study was published in the Jan.
Castleman disease is a group of inflammatory disorders that cause lymph node enlargement and can result in multiple-organ dysfunction, according to the Castleman Disease Cooperative Network. While not specifically a cancer, it is a similar to a lymphoma and is often treated with chemotherapy. It can be unicentric one lymph node or multicentric, involving multiple lymph nodes.
It is thought to be the result of a genetic mutation. Tonsil stones are another problem that can happen to the lymphatic system. Small bits of debris catches on the tonsils and white blood cells attack the debris and leave behind hard a hard biofilm that breaths oxygen. They are not smooth like regular stones, though.
The thymus gland is located is located in the mediastinum and is instrumental in the development of T lymphocytes T cells. The vermiform appendix and Peyer patches are lymphoid tissue in the intestines.
Immune System The immune system is composed of organs, tissues, cells, and chemical messengers that interact to protect the body from external invaders and its own internally altered cells.
The chemical messengers are cytokines which are secreted by cells of the immune system that direct immune cellular interactions. Lymphocytes leukocytes that are categorized as either B cells or T cells secrete lymphokines.
Monocytes and macrophages secrete monokines. Interleukins are a type of cytokine that send messages among leukocytes to direct protective action. The best way to understand this system is through the body's various levels of defense. The goal of pathogens is to breach these levels to enter the body, reproduce, and subsequently exploit healthy tissue, causing harm.
The immune system's task is to stop them. The above graphic illustrates the levels of defense. The two outside circles represent nonspecific immunity and its two levels of defense. Most pathogens can be contained by the first two lines of nonspecific defense. However, some pathogens deserve a "special" means of protection, which is discussed under "Specific Immunity.
The first line of defense in nonspecific immunity the outermost layer consists of the methods of protection: Mechanical - examples include the skin, which acts as a barrier, and the sticky mucus on mucous membranes, which serves to trap pathogens. Physical - examples include coughing, sneezing, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Comparison of Blood and Lymph Vessels
Although not pleasant, these serve to expel pathogens that have gotten past the initial barriers. Chemical - examples include tears, saliva, and perspiration. These have a slightly acidic nature that deters pathogens from entering the body while also washing them away. In addition, stomach acids and enzymes serve to kill germs. The second line of defense in nonspecific immunity comes into play if the pathogens make it past the first line.
Defensive measures include certain processes, proteins, and specialized cells. Defensive processes include the following: Phagocytosis - pathogens that make it past the first line of defense and enter into the bloodstream may be consumed by neutrophils and monocytes. Inflammation - acquiring its name from its properties, this is a protective response to irritation or injury. The characteristics heat, swelling, redness, and pain arise in response to an immediate vasoconstriction, followed by an increase in vascular permeability.
These provide a good environment for health.