The Timeline of the Life of Octavian, Caesar Augustus
Gaius Julius Caesar known by his nomen and cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman Octavian set about solidifying his power and the era of the Roman Empire .. Caesar continued his relationship with Cleopatra throughout his last. The people who most influenced young Octavius were his mother, Atia, who Unlike Caesar, one of Rome's military heroes, Augustus was sickly as a young boy. person has a sexual relationship with someone other than his or her spouse). Antony, Octavius, and Lepidus form a political alliance and take of the rule of Rome as a triumvirate after Caesar's death. It can be argued that, of the three.
Augustus - HISTORY
The combined forces drove Antony out of Italy into Gaul. In the battle with Anthony's forces the two elected Consuls of Rome were killed. Octavius's troops demanded that the Senate confer the title of Consul on Octavius. Octavius was officially recognized as the son of Julius Caesar.
He then took the name Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus. He was more generally known as Octavian during this period. Octavian and Antony agreed to a sharing of power. They, along with Lepidus who was the Pontifex Maximus, are designated by the Senate as a Triumvirate with dictatorial powers for five years.
Octavian, Antony and Lepidus agreed to eliminate those Senators and members of the Roman aristocracy whom any one of the three considered a threat to public order. Altogether senators and two thousand lesser level aristocrats are executed. Cicero, a supporter of Octavian, was designated for execution by Antony under this arrangement. The Senate deemed Julius Caesar as having been a god. This enhanced Octavian's status still further. Antony and Octavian undertook a military expedition to the East to defeat Brutus and Cassius.
In two battles at Philippi the troops of Brutus and Cassius were defeated and Brutus and Cassius killed themselves.
The Triumvirate then divided up the Empire. Anthony got the East and Gaul. Lepidus got Africa and Octavian got the West except for Italy which was to be under common control of all three. In Italy Octavian faced a local war where he intended to grant land for settlement to the soldiers of his army.
His forces defeated the local opposition at the city now known as Perugia. The island of Sicily was under the control of the son of Pompey, Sextus Pompeius, which gave him command of the shipping lanes. Octavian tried to defuse conflict with Sextus by entering into a marriage with Scribonia, a relative of Sextus. This ploy did not work. Sextus tried to establish an agreement with Antony against the interests of Octavian. Antony rejected Sextus' offer of an alliance.
Octavian later divorced Scribonia. The allianace of Octavian and Antony was renewed and further confirmed by Antony marrying Octavia, the sister of Octavian. This political marriage also did not endure. Antony was still enamored of Cleopatra, queen of Egypt. Julia, Octavian's daughter was born. A few days after her birth Octavian divorces her mother, Scribonia. Octavian marries Livia Drusilla, a member of the Roman aristocracy.
Livia Drusilla had only recently divorced her husband and was pregnant with her second son, leading to the presumption that a romantic relationship had already been in existence between Ocatavian and Livia and speculation that perhaps Octavian might have been the father of Livia's second son, Drusus.
Her older son was Tiberius. Octavian negotiated an arrangement with Antony in which Antony supplied Octavian with ships for Octavian's expedition against Sextus in Sicily. In return, Octavian supplied troops to Antony for his proposed invasion of the Parthian empire in the east.
The Triumvirate was renewed for another five years. Octavian was fortunate to have a close and trusted friend from his childhood, Marcus Agrippa, who was a military genius. Under Agrippa's command Octavian's fleet defeated Sextus.
Lepidus the member of the Triumvirate who controlled the Roman territories in African attempted to challenge Octavian. Lepidus was defeated but forced into retirement instead of being executed. Octavian with Agrippa faught campaigns in the Balkan peninsula. The formal powers of the Triumvirate end in 33 BCE.
Antony divorced Octavia, Octavian's sister. Octavian revealed that Anthony's will calls for the granting of Roman territory in the East to the children of Cleopatra.
- Mark Antony
Furthermore it reveals plans for transferring the capital of the empire from Rome to Alexandria. The sympathy and allegiance of the Roman public are with Octavian against Antony. Antony decided to bring his forces to the western side of Greece. Octavian sent a military expedition under the command of Agrippa to challenge Antony's control of Greece.Rome Octavian became pontiff HD
Octavian later joined Agrippa and their fleet bottled up Antony and Cleopatra's fleet in the Gulf of Ambracia. A naval battle ensued at Actium in which Cleopatra, for fear of being captured, pulled her ships out of the battle and headed back to Egypt thus ensuring the defeat of Anthony's forces. Anthony and some of his ships escaped from the battle and followed Cleopatra. Octavian invaded Egypt; Anthony commits suicide and Cleopatra follows suit in a tragic sequence of events. Cleopatra's son by Julius Caesar is sent into hiding on the Red Sea coast of Egypt but Octavian's forces track him down and kill him.
Octavian annexed Egypt into the Roman Empire and put it under his direct control. As a result Octavian abandoned the senators and joined forces with Antony and Lepidus, another of Caesar's officers. The three men, who called themselves the Second Triumvirate a group of three officials or government leaders in ancient Romedefeated their opponents in 42 B.
They then divided the empire into areas of influence. Over time Lepidus lost power, and it seemed impossible that Antony and Octavian could avoid clashing. Octavian declared war against Queen Cleopatra of Egypt, to whom Antony was romantically and politically tied. After a decisive naval victory in this conflict, Octavian was left as master of the entire Roman world. The following year Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide killed themselvesand in 29 B.
Octavian returned to Rome in triumph. Political authority and achievements Octavian's power was based on his control of the army, his financial resources, and his enormous popularity.
The system of government he established, however, also recognized and made important compromises toward renewing republican feeling. To show their appreciation, the members of the Senate voted him special powers and gave him the title Augustus, indicating his superior position in the state. They had been granted a general amnesty on 17 March, yet Antony had succeeded in driving most of them out of Rome with an inflammatory eulogy at Caesar's funeral, mounting public opinion against the assassins.
Mark Antony had lost the support of many Romans and supporters of Caesar when he initially opposed the motion to elevate Caesar to divine status.
During the summer, he managed to win support from Caesarian sympathizers and also made common with the Optimatesthe former enemies of Caesar, who saw him as the lesser evil and hoped to manipulate him. Antony besieged him at Mutina  and rejected the resolutions passed by the Senate to stop the fighting. The Senate had no army to enforce their resolutions.
This provided an opportunity for Octavian, who already was known to have armed forces. Both consuls were killed, however, leaving Octavian in sole command of their armies. However, the sources agree that enacting the proscriptions was a means by all three factions to eliminate political enemies. For example, Octavian allowed the proscription of his ally Cicero, Antony the proscription of his maternal uncle Lucius Julius Caesar the consul of 64 BCand Lepidus his brother Paullus.
Octavian was able to further his cause by emphasizing the fact that he was Divi filius"Son of the Divine". Mark Antony later used the examples of these battles as a means to belittle Octavian, as both battles were decisively won with the use of Antony's forces. Gaul and the province of Hispania were placed in the hands of Octavian.
Lepidus was left with the province of Africastymied by Antony, who conceded Hispania to Octavian instead. The tens of thousands who had fought on the republican side with Brutus and Cassius could easily ally with a political opponent of Octavian if not appeased, and they also required land.
Octavian chose the former. He returned Clodia to her mother, claiming that their marriage had never been consummated.