History of Fashion 's - 's
The upcoming Costume Institute exhibit and Monday's Met Ball honors two of fashion's most beloved women designers: Elsa Schiaparelli and. Research s clothing styles, trends & history with our year-by-year timeline & 50+ pictures. Some of their designs look downright modern even by today's standards. .. Long gloves went out to meet the three-quarter and elbow-length sleeves. In the s • s • s • s • s • s • s • s . The s style influenced the rock and roll style of the Fifties. introduced in the forties by fashion designer Jacques Heim and engineer Louis Reard in Paris. Mannish shoes started appearing to meet the need for practicality leading to.
Colors lightened and fancy fabrics slowly came back. It certainly had been a while. Fashion in Femininity was in full swing inAfter long, wartorn years of wearing suits, women turned to dresses again. The curves that were so popular in were replaced by a more natural look. The shoulders and bosom were much more exposed this year, but never in a flamboyant way.
Even though Paris was short on just about everything but talent, designers did their best to keep their position as the fashion capital of the world. An asymmetrical look was important in Long evening skirts swayed to one side. Dinner dresses appeared with just one shoulder strap. It was a very flattering look to the female figure.
Two popular suits, the cutaway suit and the bellhop suit, were very successful for designers. While not overly feminine, they still had a distinct look from man-tailored suits, and were exactly what women were looking for.
The Kiltie, a short pleated skirt which came in varied lengths, was a vital part of the playtime wardrobe. With the end of the war, designers were finally able to dip into their array of beautiful fabrics again. Fine Irish linens returned and were used for simple things like day dresses, or for extravagant lace. Embroidery was seen in almost every form: Colors were delicate, pale blues and pinks, pale yellows and violet, were common color combinations.
Hats were trimmed with fantastic feathers. The tricorne, bicorne and tiny pillbox were popular hat shapes. The ankle-length evening dress eclipsed the picture-skirted ball gowns in importance.
History of Fashion - - Victoria and Albert Museum
Shoulders were covered by tiny boleros. Flowing capes draped over day dresses and evening gowns alike. One extravagant wrap was a greatcoat cut like a cape, lined with seal. The feminine look was certainly aided by the fact that women could buy nylon stockings again. Also, with the rising of the hemline came a new focus on shoes. Shoes were designed with grace.
History of fashion design - Wikipedia
Gentle arches, high heels and ankle straps all gave the foot a renewed appeal. Advertisement Fashion in The new look, which had blossomed, billowed and exploded the point of near absurdity, finally collapsed. Clothes were pared down to create a tight fitting, spare look. It was the total opposite of what had been worn for the last three years. Jackets were short and rib-tight. Skirts were straight in the front and sides, with all fullness drawn to the back.
The tent coat disappeared, replaced by the belted greatcoat or the fitted coat with small shoulder capes. The Belt of the Year in was the dog leash, a thin, rounded and made in a variety of colors and materials. Handbags shrank in size and the extravagant jewelry that had been so popular over the past few years was toned down to smaller pieces. Gloves were wrist length, scarves were short and even the hats were small. Oliver Twist waistcoats suddenly appeared in every material and color imaginable, but especially of suede and velvet.
Stoles became popular again, made of tweed, wool, jersey, and fur. As such, fashions are markedly more embellished in the back than designs. The lampshade dress was perfected in The lampshade dress fit very tightly from shoulder to mid-thigh, where it flared out intensely.
It was intended for late afternoon and evening wear. Patent leather made a comeback in as well, especially in bags and belts. Fashion in Spring of went down in fashion history as the flying panel period.
In the previous autumn Balenciaga had shown a fitted suit with narrow skirt, and a wide separate back panel. This original method of achieving a slim look combined with becoming movement made such an impression that the Paris spring collections were full of developments of this flying panel theme.
There were side panels, back and front panels, all-round strip panels like maypole ribbons. Sometimes a three-step hem level was given by panels both longer and shorter than the skirt. The skirt itself was always skin-tight. Rayon Dress in Another fashion detail which grew to such proportions as to affect the silhouette was the pocket. In some evening dresses the entire bodice consisted of twin pockets. Pouch pockets and huge flap pockets, placed far to the side, widened the hips.
The fedora and Homburg hatas well as trench coatsdisappeared from widespread use this trend had already begun some years earlier on the more informal West Coast of the US after having been standard parts of menswear since the s. The designers of Hollywood created a particular type of glamour for the stars of American film, and outfits worn by the likes of Marilyn MonroeLauren Bacallor Grace Kelly were widely copied.
Quantitatively speaking, a costume worn by an actress in a Hollywood movie would have a much bigger audience than the photograph of a dress designed by a couturier illustrated in a magazine read by no more than a few thousand people.
Without even trying to keep track of all the Paris styles, its costume designers focused on their own version of classicism, which was meant to be timeless, flattering, and photogenic. Using apparently luxurious materials, such as sequins, chiffon, and fur, the clothes were very simply cut, often including some memorable detail, such as a low-cut back to a dress which was only revealed when the actress turned her back from the camera or some particularly stunning accessory.1930s and 40s Dress Sets! Vintage Fashion @idacath
Everyday women's clothing during the decade consisted of long coats, hats with small veils, and leather gloves. Knee-length dresses combined with pearl necklaces, which were made instantly popular by First Lady Mamie Eisenhower. Short, permed hair was the standard women's hairstyle of the period.
By the end of the decade mass-manufactured, off-the-peg clothing had become much more popular than in the past, granting the general public unprecedented access to fashionable styles. However, between and a radical shake-up occurred in the fundamental structure of fashion. From the s onward, there would never be just one single, prevailing trend or fashion but a great plethora of possibilities, indivisibly linked to all the various influences in other areas of people's lives.
Prosperity and the emergence of a distinct teenager culture, combined with the counterculture movement, would all have major effects on fashion. After 30 years of conservative clothing styles, the '60s saw a kind of throwback to the s with women once again adopting a childlike look with bobbed haircuts and progressively less modest clothing. At the start of the decade skirts were knee-length, but steadily became shorter and shorter until the mini-skirt emerged in By the end of the decade they had shot well above the stocking top, making the transition to tights inevitable.
Many of the radical changes in fashion developed in the streets of London, with such gifted designers as Mary Quant known for launching the mini skirt and Barbara Hulanicki the founder of the legendary boutique Biba.
Victoria and Albert Museum
In the United States, Rudi Gernreich known for his avant-garde and futuristic designs and James Galanos known for his luxurious ready-to-wear were also reaching a young audience. The main outlets for these new young fashion designers were small boutiques, selling outfits that were not exactly 'one-offs', but were made in small quantities in a limited range of sizes and colors.
However, not all designers took well to the new style and mood. InCoco Chanel mounted a rearguard action against the exposure of the knee and Balenciaga resolutely continued to produce feminine and conservative designs.
The basic shape and style of the time was simple, neat, trim, and colorful. Hats had already begun their decline in the previous decade and were now almost completely extinct except for special occasions. Lower kitten heels were a pretty substitute to stilettos. Pointed toes gave way to chisel shaped toes in and to an almond toe in Flat boots also became popular with very short dresses in and eventually they rose up the leg and reached the knee.
The '60s for the first time saw a widespread assortment of popular hairstyles, including bobs, pageboy cuts, and beehives. Two notable and influential designers in the s were Emilio Pucci and Paco Rabanne.
Emilio Pucci's sportswear designs and prints inspired by Op artpsychedeliaand medieval heraldic banners earned him a reputation that extended far beyond the circles of high society. His sleek shift dresses, tunics, and beachwear, created a 'Puccimania' that was all part of a movement to liberate the female form and his designs are today synonymous with the s.
Francisco Rabaneda Cuervo later Paco Rabanne opened his first couture house in and, from the start, produced resolutely modern designs. Rather than using conventional dress materials, he created garments from aluminumRhodoid, and pieces of scrap metal.
His designs, as well as being experimental, were also closely in tune with what modern adventurous young women wanted to wear. Among his innovations are the seamless dress made, after much experiment, by spraying vinyl chloride on to a mold, and the low-budget disposable dress made of paper and nylon thread.
Rabanne was also the first fashion designer to use black models, which very nearly resulted in his dismissal from the Chambre Syndicale de la Couture Parisienne. The success of his perfume Calandre helped support the less profitable areas of his work, while his utopianism assured him a unique position in the conservative world of haute couture. The principal change in menswear in the s was in the weight of the fabric used. The choice of materials and the method of manufacture produced a suit that, because it was lighter in weight, had a totally different look, with a line that was closer to the natural shape of the body, causing men to look at their figures more critically.
The spread of jeans served to accelerate a radical change in the male wardrobe. Young men grew their hair down to their collars and added a touch of color, and even floral motifs, to their shirts. The polo neck never succeeded in replacing the tie, but the adoption of the workman's jacket in rough corduroy, and especially the mao jacket proved to be more than simply a political statement.
In the early s there were influential 'partnerships' of celebrities and high-fashion designers, most famously Audrey Hepburn with Givenchyand Jackie Kennedy with Oleg Cassini. Also, many models had a very profound effect on fashion, most notably TwiggyVeruschkaJean Shrimpton. Early in the decade, culottes were in style and the bikini finally came into fashion in The hippie and psychedelic movements late in the decade also had a strong influence on clothing styles, including bell-bottom jeans designed by the English tailor Tommy Nutterfrom his Savoy storetie-dye and batik fabrics, as well as paisley prints.
Some saw it as the end of good taste. The decade began with a continuation of the hippie look of the late s, with kaftans, Indian scarves, and floral-print tunics. Jeans remained frayed and bell-bottomed, tie dye was still popular, and the fashion for unisex mushroomed.
An immense movement claiming civil rights for blacks combined with the influence of soul music from the USA created a nostalgia for Africa and African culture. A radical chic emerged, influenced by the likes of James BrownDiana RossAngela Davisand the Black Panthersin everything from afro hairstyles to platform soles. During the s brands greatly increased their share of the international market. Hems began dropping in to below the knee, until finally reaching the lower mid calf in and shoulderlines were dropped.
Afterfashions came to be dominated by the "disco look" which included feathered women's haircuts and on men, the three-piece leisure suit. Bell-bottomed pants would remain popular through the entire decade. Perhaps the two most innovative fashion designers in s France were Kenzo Takada and Sonia Rykiel.
The undisputed star of Parisian fashion in the s, Kenzo drew his inspiration from all over the world, mixing Western and Oriental folk influences with a fantastic joie de vivre and an instinctive understanding of what his young customers wanted. With his fluid lines, unusual prints, clever accessories, and finery that was hitherto unprecedented in ready-to-wear, he very much turned the fashion world upside down. The queen of figure-hugging knits, inSonia Rykiel designed her first pullovers with reversed seams.
However, more than that, she created a whole range of clothes that were extremely individual and yet could be worn almost anywhere. The Rykiel style, dominated by fluid knitted garments, dark blacks, rhinestones, long boa-like scarves, and little crocheted hats, conquered the American market, and even to this day Rykiel is considered by many Americans as the true successor of Chanel.
Because of punkLondon retained a considerable degree of influence over fashion, most significantly in the boutiques of the King's Road, where Vivienne Westwood 's boutique, SEXwhich opened inblew with the prevailing wind. This temple of British iconoclasm centered on fetishistic accessories and ranges of clothing in which black rubber and steel studs were the external signs of an underlying sadism. Postmodernist and iconoclastic in essence the punk movement was a direct reaction to the economic situation during the economic depression of the period, the vehicle for a hatred that was more visceral than political.
Punk had at its heart a manifesto of creation through disorder. With their ripped T-shirtsNative American hairstyles, Doc Martensbondage trousers, and chains, the punks exported an overall feeling of disgust around the globe. Another popular British style was the resolutely unmodern, feminine, countrified style of clothing popularized by Laura Ashleywhich consisted of long flounced skirts and high-necked blouses in traditional floral prints, worn with crocheted shawls.
Laura Ashley started out running a small business in Wales in the mids and the company continued to expand until the accidental death of its owner in Laura Ashley was not the only designer to look nostalgically to the past. Fashions based on the s, 30s, 40s, and 50s were popular throughout much of the decade, with Hollywood films like The Godfather and The Great Gatsbyand numerous exhibitions on costume history at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York increasing their popularity.
In Japan, the boutiques of Tokyo's fashionable Harajuku district sold many reworked versions of traditional British and American looks. In the United States, the general trend in fashion was towards simplification and longer skirts, although many women reacted negatively to the midi-length, which they felt to be aging. Pants, on the other hand, earned unanimous approval. Jeans profited most from becoming an accepted part of the American fashion scene in the s, their new-found respectability deriving from their inclusion in collections under the heading of sportswear.
The new stars of American ready-to-wear adapted the best of what they learned from Europe to the massive American clothing industry. Calvin Klein and Ralph Lauren rose from anonymity more or less simultaneously to tackle the question of designing clothes for the men and women of a new world. Two opposing movements dominated fashion in the U.
S during the s. On one hand, there was the tailored, unisex look; on the other hand, a fluid, unstructured style with a strong feeling of s glamor. The most influential American designer of the time, Roy Halston Frowick known simply as Halstonbelonged to the latter category. Acquiring celebrity status on the New York scene, his particular talent was in reconciling the made-to-measure garment for the special occasion with concepts of comfort, naturalness, and relaxation.
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With his kaftans, shirtwaisters, djellabas, ultra-lightweight shift dresses, and tunics worn over shorts and wide-legged pants, he was an icon of the era, and a regular visitor at the VIP room of the Studio 54 after its opening in Geoffrey Beenepraised for his elegant and sophisticated cuts and his use of black and white, was at his most successful in the radically simplified designs at which he excelled.
His smart little dresses and well-cut suits in jersey, flannel, and wool were instrumental in discouraging American women from over-accessorizing. Bill Blasswho launched his own range indeveloped the habit of traveling all over the United States in order to hear for himself what his customers desired. One of the most popular designers of the time, he was almost too successful in fulfilling his customers wishes.
His disciplined style and workmanship was particularly favored by businesswomen and the wives of senior executives. Betsey Johnson started out designing for the boutique Paraphernalia.
Using vinyl and metallic fabrics and putting emphasis on wit, imagination, and independence, she brought an unprecedented spirit of irreverence to New York in the s. In popular fashion the glam rock style of clothing, worn by such rock performers as David Bowie and Marc Bolanwas very influential, particularly in the United Kingdom.
The designer Elio Fiorucci had a very similar look. His boutique in Milan sold such things as brightly colored rubber boots, plastic daisy sandals, fake fur, and Pop Art -inspired jackets. During the s a new generation of menswear boutiques sprang up, aiming to change the decor, rituals, and customer base of a traditionally 'difficult' trade. To sell fashionable clothes to a young man at the end of the s was still, in many circles, tantamount to questioning his masculinity.
Men's appearance changed more in the s than it had done in a whole century. Many of the fashion designers who revolutionized the male look owed a lot of their innovations to Pierre Cardin: Work clothes supplied inspiration for a less formal style, encouraging designers to look beyond the traditional suit and, for example, adopt a unisex look or investigate the massive supply of second-hand clothes. Sometimes this kind of male dressing-down, often denounced as 'hippie', gained formal recognition as a deliberate look.
At certain other times, as part of a retro movement, designers introduced a revival of s elegance. The unearthing of old military clothing, preferably khaki and from the United States; English-style shoes; Oxford shirts; immaculate T-shirts; tweed jackets with padded shoulders; brightly colored V-neck sweaters; cashmere-printed scarves draped around the neck all imposed a certain uniformity on the casual beatnik look of the male wardrobe at the end of the s.
Also significant are the developments in Italian fashion that happened during the period. In the course of the s, as a result of its ready-to-wear industry, Milan confirmed its status as second only to Paris as a center of international fashion.
Capitalizing on the dominant trend of anti-fashion Italy offered a glamor that had nothing to do with the dictates of Parisian haute couture. A simple, understated shape was seen with the use of simple fabric. As transport changed, more people used bicycles, leading to skirts becoming shorter and less restricted.
Suits became a popular item for women during this era. The look became so prevalent it was even seen as acceptable for brides.
The Utility look formed due to the need for practical, professional wear for women while working. Sensible flat heeled shoes were worn with square shouldered jackets that resembled the cut of uniforms. The New Look in the summer emphasized the bust, waist and hips reasserting female sexuality. The style had fuller skirts with crinoline used with petticoats and netting. The garments moved with ease and were worn with bustiers. The shaped fitted jacket designed to go with the full skirt was also worn with a straight mid calf length skirt.
Reard adapted the style by making the bottoms smaller creating a string bikini. They found it hard to find model to wear the design and were forced to hire a nude dancer to model the creations.