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Elizabeth Terrill Bentley (January 1, – December 3, ) was an American spy for the At the time when he and Bentley met, Golos was involved in planning the . Bentley appeared on NBC Radio's Meet the Press, broadcast via WOR. . Bentley wrote in her autobiography Out of Bondage (New York. Day by day listing of interesting historical events for December. became the first Soviet Russian leader to visit the Vatican and meet the Pope, thus desiring more privacy amid unyielding attention from the tabloid press and 'paparazzi.' . It took effect on January 12, , following ratification by 20 member nations. Lot (Convo Garage) Closes 11PM Friday, December 14, Lot ( Convo . National Society of Black Engineers Meeting. The National Society of.
Conflicts of this nature, along with the increasingly publicized hearings of HUAC, were setting the stage for McCarthyismwhich would become a central factor in domestic American politics in the s. Meet the Press[ edit ] On August 6,at Cecil Brown asked her three times whether she would accuse William Remington of being a communist outside of congressional protection, and she finally did so.
His attorney Richard Green asked on Remington's behalf for her to withdraw the allegations by September Bentley failed to appear in court in October.
On December 29,Green said he had personally served a summons on her while, on the same day, judges and lawyers agreed to suspend Alger Hiss 's libel suit against Whittaker Chambers due to Justice indictments against Hiss on two counts of perjury two weeks before.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. June Learn how and when to remove this template message Most of the people accused by Bentley invoked the Fifth Amendment and refused to answer her charges. A few, however, specifically denied them. Most notable of these was Harry Dexter White. White was suffering from heart disease, and he died of a heart attack a few days after his testimony before HUAC.
In hopes of discrediting her, Remington's attorneys hired private detectives to look into her past. They were able to produce evidence of her alcoholism, her periods of severe depression and a suicide attempt while a student in Florence, that her master's thesis had been written by someone else, and that, by the standards of her day, she had been sexually promiscuous since her college days.
Bentley would give testimony in the trials of three accused spies: The perjury trial of William Remington, a case against Abe Brothman for obstruction of justiceand the famous case of the "atomic spies" Julius and Ethel Rosenberg.
Bentley's involvement with the Rosenberg case was peripheral. She was used to develop two points for the prosecution: She testified that she would receive calls from a man who identified himself as Julius, after which Golos would go out to meet him.
Bentley's personal life became increasingly tumultuous after her defection. She continued to drink heavily, was involved in car accidents and had a relationship with a man who beat her severely.
She also avoided subpoenas on a number of occasions. These incidents, along with generally erratic behavior, led her FBI handlers to worry that she was "bordering on some mental pitfall". As she repeatedly testified before grand juries, congressional committees and jury trials, however, some details of her story became embellished over time. Information passed to her about a process for manufacturing synthetic rubber that was originally "vague" and "probably of no value" became "super-secret" and "an extremely complicated thing.
Roy Cohnlater to become famous as Joseph McCarthy 's chief counsel and already a noted anti-communist, joined the prosecution's legal team. Remington's defense was that he had never handled any classified material, hence could not have given any to Miss Bentley. But she remembered all the facts about the rubber-from-garbage invention.
We also found the aircraft schedules, which were set up exactly as she said, and inter office memos and tables of personnel which proved Remington had access to both these items. We also discovered Remington's application for a naval commission in which he specifically pointed out that he was, in his present position with the Commerce Department, entrusted with secret military information involving airplanes, armaments, radar, and the Manhattan Project the atomic bomb.
Devin-Adairthat she had been "able through Harry Dexter White to arrange that the United States Treasury Department turn the actual printing plates over to the Russians. Bentley biographer Kathryn Olmsted concluded that Bentley was "lying about her role in the scandal",  citing historian Bruce Craig's conclusion "that the whole 'scheme' was a complete fabrication";  i.
Constitution became effective following ratification by Virginia. December 15, - Napoleon was buried in Les Invalides in Paris. He had died in exile on the island of Saint Helena after his fall from power.
December 15, - Sioux leader Sitting Bull native name Tatanka-yatanka was killed in a skirmish with U. December 15, - Gone with the Wind had its world premiere in Atlanta, introduced by producer David O.
Selznick and featuring appearances by Vivien Leigh and Clark Gable. Hollywood director John Huston, serving as an army lieutenant, filmed the battle and left behind a graphic account.
Eichmann had organized the deportation of Jews from all over occupied Europe to Nazi death camps. December 15, - Canada adopted a new national flag featuring a red maple leaf on a white background. Pinochet had come to power in after a military overthrow of the democratically elected government.
The treaty was designed to reduce international tariffs, eliminate trade quotas, and protect intellectual property. December 15, - European Union leaders announced their new currency would be known as the Euro. He also helped design the Statue of Liberty. December 16, - The Boston Tea Party occurred as colonial activists disguised as Mohawk Indians boarded British ships anchored in Boston Harbor and dumped containers of expensive tea into the water.
December 16, - American big-band leader Glenn Miller disappeared in a small plane over the English Channel and was presumably killed. Best remembered for Moonlight Serenade and In the Mood. Aided by foggy, snowy weather, the Germans penetrated 65 miles into Allied lines by the end of December. As the weather cleared, Allied aircraft attacked German ground forces and supply lines and the counter-offensive failed. There were an estimated 77, Allied andGerman casualties.
December 16, - The British House of Commons voted to abolish the death penalty in England. December 16, - The United Nations voted to revoke Resolutionoriginally approved on November 10,which had equated Zionism a movement supporting the Jewish national state of Israel with racism.
Birthday - Ludwig van Beethoven was born in Bonn, Germany. He created powerful, emotional music and is widely consider the greatest orchestral composer who ever lived. He suffered from hearing loss before he was 30 and by the time of his last Ninth symphony, he was completely deaf. Inhe conducted the Ninth Symphony at its world premier in Vienna although he was unable to hear either the orchestra or the applause.
In all, he composed nine symphonies, 32 piano sonatas, five piano concerti, 17 string quartets, ten sonatas for violin and piano, the opera Fidelio, the Mass in C Major, Missa Solemnis, and other chamber music.
She wrote love stories concerning the lives of gentry in rural England. In recent years her works have been made into very popular TV mini-series and movies. As a child he emigrated to the U. Best known for stating, "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it. She studied primitive peoples in the Southwest Pacific and was known for her outspoken manner regarding social issues such as women's rights, child rearing, population control and world hunger.
December 17, - The war between India and Pakistan over East Pakistan later Bangladesh ended as 90, Pakistani troops surrendered.
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December 17, - After three years of experimentation, Orville and Wilbur Wright achieved the first powered, controlled airplane flights.
They made four flights near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, the longest lasting about a minute. Birthday - Deborah Sampson was born in Plympton, Massachusetts.
During the American Revolutionary Warshe disguised herself as a man and enlisted in the Continental Army under the name Robert Shurtleff. Although she was wounded in battle, she was not discovered until a severe fever unmasked her identity. She was dismissed from the army in In later life, she lectured professionally on her wartime experiences. His books of poetry include Legends of New England and Snowbound. December 18 December 18, - During World War Ithe Battle of Verdun concluded after ten months of fighting in whichFrench andGerman soldiers were killed.
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December 18, - Japan was admitted to the United Nations. During Hitler's regime, he was an anti-Nazi exile. December 19 December 19, - Benjamin Franklin first published Poor Richard's Almanac containing weather predictions, humor, proverbs and epigrams, eventually selling nearly 10, copies per year. This marked the beginning of a thirty-year conflict which eventually led to heavy U. December 19, - The House of Representatives impeached President Bill Clintonapproving two out of four Articles of Impeachment, charging Clinton with lying under oath to a federal grand jury and obstructing justice.
He conducted Arctic expeditions and made three attempts to find a Northwest Passage. He introduced black studies to American colleges and universities. In May ofthe royally chartered company established the first permanent English settlement in America at Jamestown Virginia. December 20, - South Carolina became the first state to secede from the Union in a prelude to the American Civil War.
In AprilVirginia seceded, followed within five weeks by Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina, thus forming an eleven state Confederacy with a population of 9 million, including nearly 4 million slaves. The Union had 21 states and a population of over 20 million.
December 20, - The Montgomery bus boycott ended after the U. Supreme Court ruling integrating the Montgomery bus system was implemented. The boycott by African Americans had begun on December 5,after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a Montgomery bus to a white man. December 20, - The U. Operation Just Cause occurred seven months after Noriega had declared unfavorable election results in his country to be null and void.
The invasion toppled the Noriega government and resulted in the installation of Guillermo Endara as president.
Noriega temporarily eluded capture, but surrendered a few weeks later to U. He was then tried, convicted, and imprisoned in the U.2019 Enochian Calendar Update
Birthday - American industrialist Harvey S. Firestone was born in Columbiana County, Ohio. He founded Firestone Tire and Rubber Co. December 21 December 21st - Winter begins in the Northern Hemisphere. In the Southern Hemisphere today is the beginning of summer. December 21, - Anesthesia was used for the first time in Britain during an operation at University College Hospital in London performed by Robert Liston who amputated the leg of a servant. He had been injured on December 9th near Mannheim and was taken to a hospital in Heidelberg where he died.
He was buried in Luxembourg. Nicknamed "Old Blood and Guts," he once stated during the war, "We shall attack and attack until we are exhausted, and then we shall attack again.
December 21, - Pan American Flight exploded in midair as the result of a terrorist bomb and crashed into Lockerbie, Scotland.
All passengers and crew members along with 11 persons on the ground were killed. Birthday - British statesman Benjamin Disraeli was born in London. He led the Tory Party and twice held the post of prime minister. He also pioneered the concept of the political novel and produced such works as Vivian Grey, Coningsby, and Lothair.
December 22 December 22, - Following a triumphant journey from New York to Annapolis, Maryland, George Washingtonvictorious Commander-in-Chief of the American Revolutionary Army, appeared before Congress and voluntarily resigned his commission.
Widely considered the greatest Italian opera composer, he is best known for popular works such as Madama Butterfly and La Boheme. President following the assassination of President John F. She proved to be a gracious First Lady, remembered for her anti-litter campaign, asking citizens to help "Beautify America.
December 23, - The U.
Congress passed the Federal Reserve Act establishing the Federal Reserve System to serve as the nation's central bank. December 23, - The transistor was invented at Bell Laboratories by John Bardeen, Walter Brattain and William Shockley, who shared the Nobel Prize for their invention which sparked a worldwide revolution in electronics.
December 23, - Hideki Tojo was hanged for war crimes. He had been Japanese prime minister from Following Japan's defeat in World War II, he was arrested as a war criminal, tried by a military tribunal and sentenced to death.
He was hanged along with six other Japanese wartime military leaders at Sugamo Prison in Tokyo, with the sentence carried out by the U. December 23, - Dick Rutan and Jeana Yeager set a new world record of hours of continuous flight around the world without refueling. Their aircraft Voyager traveled 24, miles at a speed of about miles per hour.
Birthday - Japanese Emperor Hirohito was born in Tokyo.
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He was Japan's wartime Emperor and was allowed to remain in his position after the war. December 24, - The first surface-to-surface guided missile, later known as the V-1 Flying Bomb, was launched by German rocket engineer Wernher von Braun. Called "Buzz Bombs" for the loud buzzing sound of their motor, they were used by Nazi Germany against Britain beginning in September December 24, - General Dwight D. December 24, - On Christmas Eve, the bells of St.
Basil's Cathedral in Moscow rang for the first time since the death of Lenin. Birthday - American patriot Benjamin Rush was born on a plantation in Byberry, Pennsylvania. He was a signer of the Declaration of Independence, a doctor and humanitarian, whose writings on mental illness earned him the title "Father of Psychiatry. He was a soldier, trapper, guide and Indian agent in the Old West.
Birthday - Howard Hughes was born in Houston, Texas. He was a movie producer, aviator and industrialist whose legendary desire for privacy generated many rumors and much curiosity. Perhaps best remembered for designing an eight-engine flying boat, nicknamed the Spruce Goose, which was to carry passengers, although it only made one brief test flight.
He founded the Catholic Jesuits Society of Jesus. Although the exact date of his birth is not known, it has been celebrated on December 25th by the Western Roman Catholic Church since A. The Hessians surrendered after an hour with nearly 1, taken prisoner by Washington who suffered only six wounded including future president Lt.
The victory provided a much needed boost to American morale. December 25, - President Andrew Johnson granted general amnesty to all those involved in the Civil War. December 25, - Hirohito became Emperor of Japan. December 25, - In Romania, a television broadcast of a Christmas symphony was interrupted with the announcement that Nicolae Ceausescu and his wife had been executed following a popular uprising.
A pro-democracy coalition then took control. Louis XVI's brothers, the counts of Provence and Artois refuse to return to France, citing "the moral and physical captivity in which the King is being held. Lafayette receives command of one of the three new armies established to defend the French borders, the Army of the Centrebased at Metz.
The Assembly votes to summon a mass army of volunteers to defend the borders of France, — War and the overthrow of the monarchy[ edit ] The king is forced to wear a Phrygian cap and drink a toast to the Nation June 20, Sans-Culottes take possession of the Tuileries Palace and massacre the Swiss Guards August 10, Massacre of prisoners in Paris prisons September 2—7, French victory over the Prussians at the Battle of Valmy September 29, 23 January: The slave uprising in Haiti causes severe shortages of sugar and coffee in Paris.
Riots against food shortages; many food shops are looted.
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Food riots in Paris February 1: French citizens are required to have a passport to travel in the interior of the country. Austria and Prussia sign in Berlin a military convention to invade France and defend the monarchy. The Assembly granted freedom to slaves in Haiti. The Assembly closes the Sorbonnea center of conservative theology.
The army of Rochambeau invades the Austrian Netherlands. The government issues three hundred million assignats to finance the war. The Assembly orders the raising of thirty-one new battalions for the army.
The Assembly orders the deportation of priests who have not signed the oath to the government, known as the Civil Constitution of the Clergy.
The Assembly orders the raising of an army of twenty thousand volunteers to be camped outside Paris. Louis XVI vetoes the laws on the deportation of priests and the formation of a new army outside Paris. A secret insurrectionary committee, supported by the Paris Commune and led by the prosecutors Louis Pierre Manuel and Georges Dantonis formed. Demonstrators invade the Tuileries Palace and king Louis XVI condescends to wear a red liberty cap and drink to the health of the Nation.
The Assembly bans gatherings of armed citizens within the city limits. Lafayette speaks to the Assembly, denouncing the actions of the Jacobins and other radical groups in the Assembly. Lafayette leaves Paris and returns to his army. He is denounced by Robespierre and his effigy is burned by a mob at the Palais-Royal. As the Austrian army advances slowly toward Paris, the Assembly declares that the Nation is in danger La patrie en danger.
The Assembly votes to send regular army units, whose officers largely support Lafayette, far outside the city.
Members of the Cordeliers clubled by Danton, demand the convocation of a Convention to replace the Legislative Assembly. The Assembly authorizes the Paris sections, local assemblies in each neighborhood, many controlled by the Jacobins and Cordeliers, to meet in permanent sessions.
Brunswick Manifesto - The Austrian commander warns that should the royal family be harmed, an "exemplary and eternally memorable revenge" will follow. The Brunswick Manifesto is widely circulated in Paris, causing fury against the King. Decree by the Assembly allows working-class citizens those who pay no taxes to join the National Guard. They sing the new war hymn, of the Army of the Rhine, which gradually takes their name, La Marseillaise.
Fights break out between the new volunteers and soldiers of the National Guard loyal to Lafayette. At the request of the royal household, the Swiss guards at the Tuileries are reinforced, and joined by many armed nobles. Georges Dantona deputy city prosecutor, and his Cordeliers allies take over the Paris city government and establish the Revolutionary Paris commune. They increase the number of Commune deputies to The Assembly recognizes them as the legal government of Paris on August Storming of the Tuileries Palace.
The King and his family take refuge in the Legislative Assembly. The Swiss Guards defending the Palace are massacred. The Legislative Assembly provisionally suspends the authority of the King, and orders the election of a new government, the Convention.
The Assembly elects a new Executive Committee to replace the government. Danton is named Minister of Justice. The municipalities are authorized to arrest suspected enemies of the Revolution, and royalist newspapers and publications are banned. Royal family imprisoned in the Temple. Lafayette tries unsuccessfully to persuade his army to march on Paris to rescue the royal family. At the demand of Robespierre and the Commune of Paris, who threatens an armed uprising if the Assembly does not comply, the Assembly votes the creation of a Revolutionary Tribunalthe members of which are selected by the Commune, and the summoning of a National Convention to replace the Assembly.
The Assembly abolishes the religious teaching orders and those running hospitals, the last remaining religious orders in France. Lafayette leaves his army and goes into exile. First summary judgement by the Revolutionary Tribunal and execution by the guillotine of a royalist, Louis Collenot d'Angremont fr. Capitulation without a fight of Verdun to Brunswick's troops. September 2—7 — Massacres in Paris prisons[ edit ] September 2—7: Following the news of surrender of Verdun, the Commune orders massacres of prisoners in Paris prisons.
Between and prisoners are massacred, the great majority were common criminals, 17 percent were priests, 6 percent Swiss guards, and 5 percent political prisoners.
The government requisitions all church objects made of gold or silver. Creation of the Louvre Museum displaying art taken from royal collections. Last session of Assembly votes a new law permitting civil marriage and divorce. Of the deputies, are Jacobinswho take their seats in the highest benches in the hall, the Montagne Mountainthus their nickname of Montagnards, the "Mountaineers".
The Convention proclaims the abolition of royalty and the First French Republic. French troops occupy Nicethen part of Savoy. French troops occupy Basel in Switzerlandthen ruled by Archbishop of Basel, and proclaim it an independent Republic.
French troops occupy Frankfurt am Main.