Qualifying Scores – PA Women's Gymnastics
The state has an unusual penchant for electing gay Republicans: Two of them, . Sol proudly says that she's been "continuing to speak out at the state level, the city . Phi Beta Kappa and summa cum laude from the University of Pennsylvania. . basically is going to result in unemployment — and drunken unemployment. This means that regardless of what subject or grade-level you teach, you will be Check with your state's Department of Education for specific. cope with the persistently high rates of unemployment which appeared . As outlined in Chapter 4, one early solution was sought in state- sponsored migration.
Our History - A Brief History of the YMCA Movement
Received Jun 21; Accepted Oct 9. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Associated Data Table S1: Multivariate logistic regressions predicting participation in team and individual sports, American Time Use Survey — We thus hypothesized that, compared to girls and women, boys and men will possess a greater motivational predisposition to be interested in sports, especially team sports.
According to most scholars, advocacy groups, and the United States courts, however, this hypothesis is challenged by modest sex differences in organized school sports participation in the contemporary U. We conducted three studies to test whether organized school sports participation data underestimate the actual sex difference in sports participation.
Study 1 analyzed the American Time Use Survey, which interviewedindividuals regarding their activities during one day. These sex differences were similar for older and younger age groups. Study 2 was based on systematic observations of sports and exercise at 41 public parks in four states.
Study 3 involved surveying colleges and universities about intramural sports, which primarily consist of undergraduate participation in team sports. Nine institutions provided historical data, and these did not indicate that the sex difference is diminishing. Therefore, although efforts to ensure more equitable access to sports in the U. Introduction A game can be defined as an organized activity where two or more sides compete according to agreed-upon rules, and a sport can be defined as a game that requires physical skill see  — .
Sports occur in most or all human societies  — and numerous functions have been hypothesized, all of which appear mutually compatible . However, from an evolutionary perspective i. First, sports may function as culturally invented courtship rituals that reliably advertise participant quality to the opposite sex . Third, sports may function to build skills necessary for physically-demanding activities, especially combat, warfare, and hunting  — . Although these hypotheses are based on adaptive logic, none require the claim that sports are an adaptation per se.
Instead they assume or allow that sports arise as byproducts of other adaptations, including motives and capacities to physically compete for mates and status, negotiate and enforce behavioral norms, and monitor the abilities of potential competitors, mates and allies.
This hypothesis follows from the following points. First, many lines of evidence indicate that throughout human evolutionary history and during contemporary periods, men have been substantially more likely than women to engage in contests involving extreme physical aggression  — between-group raiding and warfare  — and cooperative hunting . Indeed, many sports require skills relevant for combat or hunting, such as running, tackling, and throwing or dodging projectiles .
In addition, some sports involve two teams competing against each other, with team play often requiring the differentiation of roles, coordination among teammates, and tactical planning .
Second, a history of male-male aggression is revealed by pronounced sexual dimorphism in musculature, strength and speed . Similarly, men but not women possess secondary sexual characteristics e. Another legacy of this history is a predisposition s to behaviorally prepare for physical contests, both individually and in groups.
This is indicated by the fact that, in all societies that have been studied, boys engage in more rough-and-tumble play and play-fighting  — . In fact, the Chicago Y was able to organize a new South Shore branch in the depths of the Depression.
It also helped form the United Service Organization USOwhich ran drop-in centers for servicepeople and sent performers abroad to entertain the troops. Ys worked with displaced persons and refugees as well, and sent both workers and money abroad after the war to help rebuild damaged YMCA buildings.
After more than two decades of study and trial YMCA youth secretaries in agreed to put a national seal of approval on what was already widespread in the movement to focus their energies on four programs that involved work in small groups. They became known as the "four fronts" or "four platforms" of Youth Work: There would eventually be all-female and coed models as well.
Times of change At the close of the war, the Ys had changed.
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Sixty-two percent were admitting women, and other barriers began to fall one after the other, with families the new emphasis, and all races and religions included at all levels of the organization. The rapidly expanding suburbs drew the Ys with them, sometimes abandoning the old residences and downtown buildings that no longer were efficient or necessary. Inthe U. The result was 98 Y buildings renovated, improved or built new in 32 countries.
In what could be called the Great Disillusion ofthe nation was rocked by turmoil that included the Vietnam War, urban noting, the forced resignation of a U. He said the choice was "either to keep learning or to become 20th-century Pharisees clinging to forms and theories that were once valid expressions of the best that was known, but that today are outdated and irrelevant. The Ys poured their own money and talent into outreach as well.
Outreach programs were not new to the organization, but the size and scope involved were new. The four-fronts youth programs withered for lack of attention, dying out entirely in many major centers, but holding fast in YMCA camping and in parts of the Midwest and much of the South.
When federal aid dried up, money troubles began to reappear, as Ys struggled to keep faith with those they were helping. An even more insidious problem was in the mix. Long schooled in conciliation, Y people found themselves being confronted aggressively both at home and abroad.
It was particularly hard to deal with and discouraging. Beginning in the fraternal secretaries serving YMCAs overseas were being called home.
Some buildings in U. Y leaders were urged to become more businesslike in both their appearance and their operations, a topic raised by Y boards since the s.
Trends Afterthe old physical programming featured by YMCAs for a century began to perk up as interest in healthy lifestyles increased nationwide. Bypressure for up-to-date buildings and equipment brought on a boom in construction that lasted through the decade.
Child care for working parents, an extension of what YMCAs had done informally for years, came with a rush in and quickly joined health and fitness, camping, and residences as a major source of YMCA income. Character Development and Asset-Based Approach During the s and '90s, the ideas of "values clarification" were slowly replaced by ideas of "character. But by the mid to late '80s, this was seen as contributing to a morally bankrupt society, in which there is no notion of virtue or of vicejust different points of view.
The ideas of character development and civic virtues became central, with Bennet's The Book of Virtues hitting the best-seller lists and organizations such as Character Counts! George Williams stated this perfectly in his response to how he would respond to a young man who said that he had lost his belief in Jesus, by saying that his first act would be to see that the young man had dinner. The YMCA movement studied the issue and emerged with four "core values" -- caring, honesty, respect and responsibility -- and promptly began to incorporate these in all programming in an explicit and conscious way.
During the '90s, a tremendous change occurred in the field of youth development. Previously, the focus had been on the "deficit model," in other words, what went wrong with the youth who got into trouble, and how could they be corrected.
But the same way that prevention and development of health, rather than just the cure of disease pervaded the medical world, youth workers and academics started to look at what contributes to healthy development and prevents problems -- an "assets model. The research showed 30 later increased to 40 developmental assets that positively correlated with pro-social and healthy behaviors in youth, and negatively correlated with anti-social and unhealthy behaviors.
The more assets a youth has, the more likely he or she is to behave well, the less likely to engage in risky behaviors. This not only provided a "road map" for Ys to follow in creating healthy kids, families and communities, but also was an inherent proof of the effectiveness of youth programs. It also showed a wider focus than had been thought possible. It doesn't matter if a program consists of sports, music, a teen center, mentoring or aerobics, or if it's aimed at reducing teen pregnancy, smoking or crime.
If it provides one or more of the developmental assets, it will reduce the overall risk of any kind of negative behavior, and raise the likelihood of positive behavior.
So we say that the Gideons was founded at a Y, but not that a Y started Gideons. It would be impossible to list all of the individuals and organizations contributing to this document.
We received information from sources ranging from trade associations to university professors to current and retired YMCA employees. The only things they had in common were a deep respect for Y traditions, a love for what the YMCA stands for and a desire to help. Their efforts and irreplaceable resources provided needed details when no one else knew where to look.
The reason to look at what YMCAs did in the past is to inspire today's YMCA staff and volunteers to serve their communities with the same concern, dedication and courage. They may not make a list of firsts, but they will keep YMCAs foremost with their accomplishments.
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Many of the sports people play were introduced at YMCAs, too. Volleyball was invented at the Holyoke Mass. Morgan blended elements of basketball, tennis and handball into the game and called it mintonette. InYMCAs held their first national championship in the game. This became the U. Open inwhen non-YMCA teams were permitted to compete. Racquetball was invented in at the Greenwich Conn.
YMCA by Joe Sobek, a member who couldn't find other squash players of his caliber and who did not care for handball. He tried paddleball and platform tennis and came up with the idea of using a strung racquet similar to a platform tennis paddle not a sawed-off tennis racquet, as some say to allow a greater variety of shots.
After drawing up rules for the game, Sobek went to nearby Ys for approval by other players, and at the same time formed them into the Paddle Rackets Association to promote the sport. The original balls Sobek used were half blue and half red. When he needed replacements, Sobek asked Spalding, the original manufacturer, to make the balls all blue, so they wouldn't mark the Y's courts. Softball had been played for many years prior tounder such names as kittenball, softball and even sissyball.
Inhowever, the YMCA state secretary, Homer Hoisington, noticed both the sport's popularity and its need for standardized rules. After a gathering of interested parties, the CASA was formed and Hakanson moved to settle on the name softball for the game. The motion carried, and the name softball became accepted nationwide.
Shortly thereafter, the Denver YMCA adopted a declaration of principles for softball, adhering to noncommercialized recreation open to all ages and races and demanding good sportsmanship.
Professional football began at a YMCA. Inin Latrobe, Pa. Years later, however, Pudge Heffelfinger claimed that he was secretly paid to play for the Allegheny Athletic Association in The NFL elected to go with Pudge's version of events. Gulick needed a game to occupy a class of incorrigibles -- 18 future YMCA directors who, more interested in rugby and football, didn't care for leapfrog, tumbling and other activities they were forced to do during the winter.
Gulick, obviously out of patience with the group, gave Naismith two weeks to come up with a game to occupy them.
Naismith decided that the new game had to be physically active and simple to understand. It could not be rough, so no contact could be allowed. The ball could be passed but not carried. Goals at each end of the court would lend a degree of difficulty and give skill and science a role. Elevating the goal would eliminate rushes that could injure players, a problem in football and rugby. Introducing the game of basketball at the next gym class Naismith did meet Gulick's deadlineNaismith posted 13 rules on the wall and taught the game to the incorrigibles.
The men loved it and proceeded to introduce basketball to their home towns over Christmas break. Naismith's invention spread like wildfire.
Not only was basketball invented by a YMCA institution, but the game's first professional team came from a Y. YMCA had fielded a basketball team since and in its team claimed to be the national champions after beating various other YMCA and college teams. The team then severed its ties with the Y. It played the season out of a local Masonic temple, charging for admission and keeping the proceeds.
Some of the biggest are camping, swimming and child care. Here are some stories of their development. Camping has been a part of YMCA programming for more than a century.
What YMCAs can claim is having founded the first continuously used camp. The first school camp was started in by William Gunn, and Gunn camps became well known. A camp for weakly boys was organized in by Dr. The first church camp for boys was started inand in the first private camp to meet special educational needs was established.
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None of these camps was a YMCA camp, and none of them operates today. YMCAs became involved in camping in the s, with the earliest reference being that of the Vermont Y's boy's missionary who would now be the youth director taking a group of boys to Lake Champlain for a summer encampment.
Inthe Brooklyn N. YMCA reported taking 30 boys on a camping out. Many other YMCAs had camp experiences for youth as well, and in national records started recording camping programs under outings and excursions.
Dudley referred to the first camp as Camp Baldhead. After Dudley's death inthe camp was renamed Camp Dudley. It started because a camp director wanted to award athletic ability. Other camp leaders objected, noting that a boy with physical disabilities would then never be able to win. They settled on a program of personal counseling and seeking God's will for oneself. Walker, was inspired by the program's creed.
It was not always this way, however, and for many years swimming was seen as a distraction from legitimate physical development. By the end of the year, it was reported that 17 Ys had pools. Pools then bore scant resemblance to the pools of today: The Brooklyn Central pool was 14' x 45' and 5' deep.
Early pools, in addition to being small, had no filters or recirculation systems. The water in the pool just got dirtier and dirtier until the pool was drained and cleaned, which some Ys did on a weekly basis. No wonder the medical community saw them as a threat to health. Two developments helped change YMCA staff attitudes towards pools. What Corsan did was to teach swimming strokes on land, starting with the crawl stroke first, as a confidence builder. Prior to Corsan's methods, strokes were only taught in the pool and the crawl was not taught until later.
Corsan also came up with the ideas of the learn-to-swim campaign and using bronze buttons as rewards for swimming proficiency. He gave a button to boys who swam 50 feet. Corsan's learn-to-swim campaigns resulted in in the first campaign to teach every boy in the United States and Canada how to swim. Perhaps Corsan's land drills for swimming came about as a result of how swimming had been taught. Early YMCA staff viewed swimming as a distraction from the real job of physical development, which meant exercise and gymnastics.
Boys in San Francisco, for example, could not use the pool until after they had passed a proficiency test in gymnastics. In the s, swimming was taught by using a rope and pulley system. The second development was the use of filtration systems for keeping the water clean. Rayburn, a founder of what was the Building Bureau now BFScame up with the ideas of building pools with roll-out rims and water recirculation systems. Recirculation meant that the water could be filtered and impurities removed.
The first roll-out rim was installed in in the Kansas City, Mo. Ina filtration system was added to the Kansas City pool. No more would pools be considered health menaces. The combination of these developments, Corsan's mass teaching techniques and Rayburn's filtration systems, came together to popularize swimming and swim instruction at YMCAs.
A New York Times article from provides a glimpse into the status of Italian immigration at the turn of the century. Of the half million Italians that are in the United States, aboutlive in the city, and including those who live in Brooklyn, Jersey City, and the other suburbs the total number in the vicinity is estimated at aboutAfter learning our ways they become good, industrious citizens.
They are laborers; toilers in all grades of manual work; they are artisans, they are junkmen, and here, too, dwell the rag pickers There is a monster colony of Italians who might be termed the commercial or shop keeping community of the Latins. Here are all sorts of stores, pensions, groceries, fruit emporiums, tailors, shoemakers, wine merchants, importers, musical instrument makers There are notaries, lawyers, doctors, apothecaries, undertakers There are more bankers among the Italians than among any other foreigners except the Germans in the city.
Henry to write a letter in October to the Bishop John J. Clency of SligoIreland ; warning: The Italians are more economic, can live on poor fare and consequently can afford to work for less wages than the ordinary Irishman The Brooklyn Eagle in a article addressed the same reality: But it is the Italian now that does the work.
Then came the Italian carpenter and finally the mason and the bricklayer In spite of the economic hardship of the immigrants, civil and social life flourished in the Italian American neighborhoods of the large Northeastern cities. Italian theater, band concerts, choral recitals, puppet shows, mutual-aid societies, and social clubs were available to the immigrants.
The festa involved an elaborate procession through the streets in honor of a patron saint or the Virgin Mary in which a large statue was carried by a team of men, with musicians marching behind. Followed by food, fireworks and general merriment, the festa became an important occasion that helped give the immigrants a sense of unity and common identity.
An American teacher who had studied in Italy, Sarah Wool Moore was so concerned with grifters luring immigrants into rooming houses or employment contracts in which the bosses got kickbacks that she pressed for the founding of the Society for the Protection of Italian Immigrants often called the Society for Italian Immigrants. The Society published lists of approved living quarters and employers.
Later, the organization began establishing schools in work camps to help adult immigrants learn English. The schools focused on teaching phrases that workers needed in their everyday tasks. Among these was Sister Francesca Cabriniwho founded schools, hospitals and orphanages. She was canonized as the first American saint in Hundreds of parishes were founded by the St.
Charles missionaries to serve the needs of the Italian communities. ByItalians had founded Italian Catholic churches and 41 parochial schools, served by priests and nuns, 2 Catholic seminaries and 3 orphanages. They were drawn there by opportunities in agriculture, fishing, mining, railroad construction, lumbering and other activities underway at the time.
Oftentimes, the immigrants contracted to work in these areas of the country as a condition for payment of their passage. It was not uncommon, especially in the South, for the immigrants to be subjected to economic exploitation, hostility and sometimes even violence.
A number of towns, such as Roseto, Pennsylvania,  Tontitown, Arkansas,  and Valdese, North Carolina  were founded by Italian immigrants during this era.
A number of major business ventures were founded by Italian Americans. Amadeo Giannini originated the concept of branch banking to serve the Italian American community in San Francisco. He founded the Bank of Italy, which later became the Bank of America. His bank also provided financing to the film industry developing on the West Coast at the time. An Italian immigrant, Italo Marciony Marcioniis credited with inventing the earliest version of an ice cream cone in Another Italian immigrant, Giuseppe Bellancabrought with him in an advanced aircraft design, which he began producing.
It was Charles Lindbergh 's first choice for his flight across the Atlantic, but other factors ruled this out; however, one of Bellanca's planes, piloted by Cesare Sabelli and George Pond, made one of the first non-stop trans-Atlantic flights in An Italian immigrant, Attilio Piccirilliand his five brothers carved the Lincoln Memorialwhich they began in and completed in Italian construction workers helped build Washington's Union Station, considered one of the most beautiful in the country, which was begun in and completed in The six statues that decorate the station's facade were sculpted by Andrew Bernasconi between and Many Italian operatic singers and conductors were invited to perform for American audiences, most notably, tenor Enrico Caruso.
The premiere of the opera La Fanciulla del West on December 10,with conductor Toscanini and tenor Caruso, and with the composer Giacomo Puccini in attendance, was a major international success as well as an historic event for the entire Italian American community. Rudolph Valentino was one of the first great film icons.
Dixieland jazz music had a number of important Italian American innovators, the most famous being Nick LaRocca of New Orleans, whose quintet made the first jazz recording in Ralph DePalma won the Indianapolis in Italian Americans became increasingly involved in politics, government and the labor movement.
Andrew Longino was elected Governor of Mississippi in Numerous Italian Americans were at the forefront in fighting for worker's rights in industries such as the mining, textiles and garment industries, the most notable among these being Arturo GiovannittiCarlo Tresca and Joseph Ettor. The Italian American community wholeheartedly supported the war effort and its young men, both American-born and Italian-born, enlisted in large numbers in the American Army.
Another Italian Americans 83 Italian born were awarded the Distinguished Service Crossthe second highest decoration. English was now the language most commonly heard on the streets of the Little Italies. Women found jobs as civil servants, secretaries, dressmakers, and clerks. With better paying jobs they moved to more affluent neighborhoods outside of the Italian enclaves. The Great Depression —39 had a major impact on the Italian American community, and temporarily reversed some of the earlier gains made.
Many unemployed men and a few women found jobs on President Franklin D.