India–Pakistan relations - Wikipedia
The Indo-Pakistani War of was a culmination of skirmishes that took place between April In spite of improved relations with the U.S. and Britain since the end of the Cold War, the conflict generated a deep . near the west bank of the Icchogil Canal (BRB Canal), which was a de facto border of India and Pakistan. Since the partition of British India in and creation of modern states of India and Pakistan, The Partition of British India came about in the aftermath of World War II, of the Indian National Congress, should have resulted in peaceful relations. Pakistan attacked at several places along India's western border with . The border between India and Pakistan has seen a bloody partition in that is not the only measure of the damage this poisoned relationship does. Although the fighting has subsided in Kashmir, the issue remains.
Late last month, the Pakistani army chief directly warned India over its increased cease-fire violations on the Line of Control. India and Pakistan know how to enter a crisis, but they have not agreed to measures aimed at limiting escalation in an ongoing episode, let alone ones aimed at terminating a crisis altogether. Adding to the conundrum are Indian and Pakistani force modernization and investments in destabilizing platforms and postures.
How the India-Pakistan Conflict Leaves Great Powers Powerless – Foreign Policy
Notably, one of the attractions of the doctrine for Indian planners is that it can be employed swiftly enough to forestall the possibility of international pressure to hold India back from using force against Pakistan. Pakistan has developed a tactical nuclear weapon capability in response, which potentially further lowers its threshold for employing nuclear weapons, considerably reducing the time available to third parties seeking de-escalation to respond.
The risks associated with this dynamic are especially acute given the potentially compromised positions third-party mediators may find themselves in going forward. In the past, as the United States and other states stepped in to mediate, India and Pakistan willingly transferred the crisis management burden on to them, asking them to pressure the other to concede ground.
Over time, however, this dynamic has generated an expectation of U. The trouble is that all previous crises occurred at a time when U. In past instances of crisis management, states like China and Russia did not try to outcompete the United States. In fact, all third-party states prioritized de-escalation over their larger foreign-policy and security interests, presenting a united front to India and Pakistan and preventing them from playing one third party against the other.
This third-party convergence proved crucial to ensuring de-escalation of crises. The situation is radically different today. National Defense Strategy now explicitly points to great-power rivals as the greatest threat to U. In Afghanistantheir competitive policies are directly undermining prospects for peace—even though all three countries profess to be working toward the common goal of a stable and peaceful Afghanistan.
These new great-power dynamics can easily weaken U. Shifting alliance structures in South Asia may further complicate the management of India-Pakistan crises. India now sees the U. If great-power competition influences third parties to prioritize these alliances or to use India and Pakistan as proxies for their great-power gains over the immediate goal of crisis termination, they could transform from being agents of de-escalation to drivers of escalation.
The world needs to encourage India and Pakistan to reduce the risk of war in the region and help the two neighbors restart an active peace process aimed at addressing underlying issues that cause crises to occur—their outstanding disputes, principally Kashmir, and continued operations by terrorist outfits in the region being the two most pertinent ones.
In addition to focusing on crisis prevention, India and Pakistan need to work on creating dependable escalation control mechanisms before the next crisis emerges. Indo-Pakistani War of Indian soldiers during the — war. The war, also called the First Kashmir War, started in October when Pakistan feared that the Maharaja of the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu would accede to India. Following partition, princely states were left to choose whether to join India or Pakistan or to remain independent.
Jammu and Kashmir, the largest of the princely states, had a majority Muslim population and significant fraction of Hindu population, all ruled by the Hindu Maharaja Hari Singh.
Milestones: – - Office of the Historian
Tribal Islamic forces with support from the army of Pakistan attacked and occupied parts of the princely state forcing the Maharaja to sign the Instrument of Accession of the princely state to the Dominion of India to receive Indian military aid.
The fronts solidified gradually along what came to be known as the Line of Control. A formal cease-fire was declared at The Pakistan controlled areas are collectively referred to as Pakistan administered Kashmir.
Indo-Pakistani War of This war started following Pakistan's Operation Gibraltarwhich was designed to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir to precipitate an insurgency against rule by India. India retaliated by launching a full-scale military attack on West Pakistan. The seventeen-day war caused thousands of casualties on both sides and witnessed the largest engagement of armored vehicles and the largest tank battle since World War II.
Niazithe commander of Pakistan Eastern Commandsigning the instrument of surrender in Dhaka on 16 Decin the presence of India's Lt. This war was unique in the way that it did not involve the issue of Kashmir, but was rather precipitated by the crisis created by the political battle brewing in erstwhile East Pakistan between Sheikh Mujibur RahmanLeader of East Pakistanand Yahya Khan and Zulfikar Ali Bhuttoleaders of West Pakistan.
This would culminate in the declaration of Independence of Bangladesh from the state system of Pakistan. Following Operation Searchlight and the Bangladesh atrocitiesabout 10 million Bengalis in East Pakistan took refuge in neighbouring India. Pakistan attacked at several places along India's western border with Pakistan, but the Indian Army successfully held their positions. Within two weeks of intense fighting, Pakistani forces in East Pakistan surrendered to the joint command of Indian and Bangladeshi forces following which the People's Republic of Bangladesh was created.
Kargil War Commonly known as the Kargil War, this conflict between the two countries was mostly limited. The state of Jammu and Kashmir, which had a predominantly Muslim population but a Hindu leader, shared borders with both India and West Pakistan.
The argument over which nation would incorporate the state led to the first India-Pakistan War in —48 and ended with UN mediation.
Conflict resumed again in earlywhen Pakistani and Indian forces clashed over disputed territory along the border between the two nations. Hostilities intensified that August when the Pakistani Army attempted to take Kashmir by force.
- Kashmir: Why India and Pakistan fight over it
- Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts
- How the India-Pakistan Conflict Leaves Great Powers Powerless
The attempt to seize the state was unsuccessful, and the second India-Pakistan War reached a stalemate. This time, the international politics of the Cold War affected the nature of the conflict. The United States had a history of ambivalent relations with India.
During the s, U.