A really nice presentation describing Brand personality in very simple Relationship Basis Model The Functional Benefit. investigated, and then based on the Big Five Model a questionnaire is designed. The target. audiences of Relationship between brand personality, customer personality, gender and income is constructed on a rational and emotional basis. brand personality as a relationship basis has theoretical support. model containing the item Brand Personality Scale (BPS) and the item Relationship.
Wells Fargo, as represented by the stagecoach, reflects an independent, cowboy type who delivers reliably. Although competitors may actually deliver superior reliability and safety of assets, because of the stagecoach, Wells wins the battle of perception.
Guiding Brand-Building Programs Tactically, the brand personality concept and vocabulary communicate to those who must implement the brand- building effort. As a practical matter, decisions need to be made about the communications package, including advertising, packaging, promotions, events, customer touch points, digital programs and more. If the brand is specified only in terms of attribute associations, little guidance is provided.
To say that TaylorMade golf equipment is of high quality with an innovative design does not give much direction. A brand personality statement provides depth and texture, making it more feasible to keep the communication and other brand-building efforts on strategy. The company gave that person a name. Then whenever a product, communication or operation initiative was proposed, the criterion was: Would Sue do it? The concept led to easier and better decisions.
Helping to Understand the Customer The brand personality metaphor can help a manager gain an in-depth understanding of consumer perceptions of the brand. Instead of asking about attribute perceptions, which can be both boring and intrusive, asking people to describe a brand personality often is involving, and can result in more accurate and richer insights into feelings and relationships.
The arrogant and powerful personality ascribed to Microsoft, for example, provides a deeper understanding about the nature of the relationship between Microsoft and its customers. Or the personality construct might be a better entry into understanding the calm emotion associated with Celestial Seasonings tea than a discussion of attributes. Providing Energy When developing a brand vision, there frequently comes a point at which someone asks: Does the brand contain any energy?
A brand personality often is a good way to introduce energy into a vision. A strong brand personality, such as those surrounding Mercedes, Muji or American Express, can provide energy by adding interest and involvement.
Second, for contributing to a differentiating identity. How does a Virginia Slims or a Marlboro manage to stand out in a crowded brandspace? The personality is often the foundation for meaningful differentiation, especially when products are similar on functional attributes. Third, for guiding the communication effort. The concept and vocabulary of the personality, according to Aaker, communicates the identity with richness and texture to those who must implement the identity building effort.
Including promos, packaging, style of interactions, advertising, retailing.
Take britannia Little Hearts - from the name onwards, it appears young and perhaps romantic. It isn't packaged like biscuits, but more like chips. The distribution and display follows suit and the communication reinforces all of this. Here is where we get into the crux of the matter.
There is more than one way in which a personality adds value to your brand. Aaker's model will help to highlight this. In the former case the brand becomes a statement while in the latter case the brand is a self image enhancer. Clearly, there is some value over and above the direct use of the product that the consumer derives. The core target segment of Louis Phillipe shares the values and uses the brand to express their personality, while the extended target group buys into the personality is an aspirational sense.
The self expression also works in more ways than one. Apart from an identity statement which works for some categories it can appeal through feelings engendered by the brand - when using it creates warmth, nostalgia, a family feeling with or without a social context. Sundrop's family situation describes the former while Reebok's "This is My Planet" exemplifies the latter. Finally, and at the highest level, the brand becomes a part of the self, when the consumer loathes separation from the brand.
This happens for few categories, including Cars, cigarettes and motorbikes. The Harley Davidson story is perhaps the most enduring example of this - the users of Harley Davidson see themselves as part of the family, tattoo the brand onto their bodies and undertake activities that bring Harley riders together.
Its important to bear in mind that different social contexts, bring out different states of the self. So buying and using a brand may not represent the entirety of a persons personality but a small part of it.
The person may feel the need to express a suppressed or small part of his identity. Think of the staid investment banker who buys an Allen Solly shirt. The brand personality therefore, reacts with the personality of the user. This is even more important in the next value delivery model.
Relationship basis Model We spoke earlier of escape mechanisms and meaningful friendships earlier. While the self expression model can be an example of the former, the Relationship Basis model applies to the latter.
This essentially means that people may not want to become like the person they feel the brand is, but they may feel a liking or admiration with a person like that, and may desire association with such a person.
Porsche was seen in the eighties as the car for the Young and Successful. The flashy, sporty personality of the car was what buyers craved to be. Volks wagon, on the other hand, has always spoken of reliability, as Volvo for safety, so in these cases the buyer sees the car as a friend, although he may not actually want to become reliable, like the Volkswagon At BPL some months back, a brand personality study revealed that BPL was seen as Madhuri Dixit or a Ruby Bhatia.
BPL, however felt that there was a negative aspect to this kind of relationship, as the relationship with film stars is infatuational and transient. So a conscious effort was made to move to a more personality providing a more meaningful relationship. BPL's image of being young and trendy also had its liability of appearing unreliable. Colgate and Close Up offer similar emotional payoffs Confidence in a close personal interaction but the difference lies in the relationships they seek to establish - Colgate is the dentist - a professional who can lecture you Close Up, on the other hand is a friend you can have fun with" A study by Susan Fournier of Harvard, lists 7 dimensions for measuring and managing the Brand Relationship Quality.
This model assumes importance in the light of the situation where 2 people or 2 sets of people may perceive the same personality in a brand, but their relationship with such a personality may be different.
This leads to Relationship Segmentation of consumers.
Functional Benefit Representation Model The personality can also be a vehicle for representing and cueing functional benefits and brand attributes. If done well, it can capture the core value proposition of the brand.
The Power of Branding: Brand Personality- The Relationship Basis Model
The case of Asian Paints' Gattu, on the other hand is one of being "seen but not heard". He symbolises Asian Paints, but at a very superficial level and does not rerally capture the core values of A-Paints, and is reduced to a mere mnemonic and not even that for a brand like Royale.
The name of the brand can also cue the personality, refering perhaps, to the country of origin, In case of L'Oreal the French name adds some intangible benefit in the category of cosmetics and hair and skin care. Ideally this should reinforce one of the other two value sources. Service Personality It may be worthwhile to mention the stronger role of personalities in a service brand. The reasons are obvious, there are few tangibles for the customer to appreciate, the face of the deliverer differs from point to point and from day to day - infact for office couriers there may be no face at all.
Started inby Dalsey, Hillblom and Lynn to transport shipping documents in advance of the actual shipments, DHL today spans countries, employs 37, people and deliers 95 million documents a year.
The brand's position has evolved from being a "document carrier" to a "documents and parcel carrier" in the 70s to "express freight provider" in the '80s to "express logistics provider" in the 90s. Clearly, the picture emerges of a strong brand, with well defined core values. Why then did they feel the need to launch a sub-brand - the DHL Jumbo?
Why did they build into a personality with a mascot? The answer lies in the value delivery mechanism. The company was able to segment the market into "slow and Cumbersome air freight" and "Air freight made easy"- a very high value idea for small exporters needing to demonstrate their product and unable to cope with the hassles of safe packaging and nitty gritty documentation.
Around this strong functional benefit, the company devised the brand "Jumbo" to capture the functional benefit in a single strong mnemonic. Importantly, the Jumbo was chosen keeping it mind its applicability as a mascot accross countries and cultures. The Brand Personality can be a useful tool for segmentation as well. Dr Vasudevan's Study, which uses Cigarettes as an example, segments smokers into 4 categories: Family security driven by destiny, classical hedonists, cautious materialists and street smart smokers.
Personality segmentation is practised very successfully by Coats Viyella. Their 3 brands - Allen Solly, Van Heusen and Louise Phillipe retail at roughly the same prices, but they are strongly differentiated by their personalities. Accordingly, the showrooms bear the appropriate look. Even in sponsorships, while Van Heusen sponsors lectures by corporate personalities, Louise Phillipe patronises the arts - theatre and music.
Allen Solly associates itself with ecology and other contemporary issues. The consumer may wear more than one brand - as sometimes a particular design or colour may appeal to him - but he does lock into a brand personality. For Madura Garments, the user of Louise Phillipe is the 35 year old who has achieved some status. The Van Heusen person is younger with a strong corporate orientation.
The Allen Solly wearer, is essentially a young person, different from others in his activities interests and opinions, a free spirit who doesn't go by accepted dress codes.
Though distinct from brand personality, people's brand choices are often driven by such user imagery. User imagery is the picture the consumer carries of the kind of person who uses a brand like this. There is of course some consonance betwen user imagery and brand personality which can be exploited through testimonial advertising.
Was Lalitaji the personality of Surf? Surf, traditionally has used the testimonial route. M S Banga of Levers feels "Lalita ji represented the woman of the times - she represented the reassurance that buying Surf was a good decision.
Brand Personalities Are Like Snowflakes
However, the user imagery can prove to be a source of dissonance for the brand as well. It is one of the sources of Dissonance. Infact Surf has recognized that todays woman is not looking for reassurance for her actions, but likes to do things independently. The advertising, still of a testimonial nature, captures this change in the surf consumer and the personality of Surf has evolved as well.
Dissonances Dissonances dog most brand building efforts, because of lack of synergy between all that a brand says and does. As Lux may have a personality of a film star, but when you go to buy it, the stacking and the packaging is much the same as others.
One major source of dissonance is often brand personality versus user imagery. For Ruff'n Tuff jeans, while the user aspires to be Akshay Kumar, he sees ordinary people all around him wearing the brand.
This is a problem with all aspirational brands.
Or you can simply say what you do is what you are. The bottom line is that the personality evolves out of every single act of the brand. Hence the truth of the statement "personality building is the same as brand equity building". Usha Bhandarkar maintains that brand personality can be built through "a snatch of music, a set of words or a gesture At the same time, the thrust Intel has placed in many parts of the world, including India, on computer education from a primary level, is bound to have an effect on the personality of Intel, as did the fiasco of the Pentium chip.
The Intel Inside campaign plays a special role - as it appears as a sticker on the products of its customers. It builds its own strong personality without taking away from its customers'. Like a best supporting actor. Contrast this with the personaluty of the Intel MMX chip - which immediately brings to mind colours, music, dancing.
We may take a closer look at some of the things which seem to have a stronger bearing, or have a better defined causal relationship with personality evolution. Advertising is clearly a major contributor: And from testimonials - Surf Excel's current campaign uses regular users of the product, not models or actresses - to celebrity endorsement - accepts Philips' using Tendulkar and Aishwarya Rai are both attempts at making the brand more young and contemporary to the masses.
Also relevant, are tone and media-selection. Packaging has a leading role - infact its often the first thing you see about the brand. From Nivea's unisex colouring, to Little Hearts' youthful snacklike packs, the packaging, like the clothes people wear, communicates much about the personality of the brand.
Understanding and exploiting Customer-Category Relationship. Take the case of Britannia's Marie. People like to have biscuits with their tea.