The health benefits produced by physical activity are well-documented –. Less is known about the dose-response relationships between. Although the positive health effects of physical activity have been widely accepted whether there is a dose-response relationship between physical activity and. Nature of the Activity/Health Relationship. . association between physical activity and a health . these studies demonstrated an inverse dose-response.
The authors stated thatdeaths from heart disease, 14, deaths from breast cancer and 24, deaths from colon cancer could have been avoided in Europe in if everyone had been active enough to meet the current WHO recommendations.
There is good evidence that being physically active improves blood glucose control and prevents or delays the onset of T2D. High risk individuals include obese individuals, those with a positive family history of diabetes, or those with impaired glucose tolerance.
However, the greatest gains were seen with vigorous intensity exercise, which may reduce the risk of developing T2D in at risk groups by up to a third. For example, exercise training for 16 weeks by older men resulted in a significant improvement of insulin sensitivity and fasting glycaemia.
Routine physical activity whether occupational or leisure is associated with reductions in the incidence of overall risk of cancer. Childhood obesity in Europe also rose steadily over the same time span. There is evidence that those who maintain a physically active lifestyle gain less weight with age than their inactive peers. It has been suggested that levels of physical activity greater than currently recommended will be needed to prevent weight gain over the lifespan.
Physical activity reduces their risk of heart disease and diabetes and metabolic predictors of these diseases like abnormal blood glucose and blood fat levels. This highlights the importance of physical activity independent to its impact on weight control and obesity. The latter is particularly important during adolescence and childhood as during growth, substantial increases in bone mineral content occur, which reduces the likelihood of osteoporosis and hip fractures later in life.
Keeping active in old age reduces the risk of hip fractures and falls, and helps maintain functional ability such as lifting, carrying and climbing stairs, which are necessary for independent living. Regular physical activity can also improve mental acuity. In older adults, keeping active can improve mental functioning in areas such as planning, short term memory and decision making and delay the onset of dementia.
Bailey et al have explained how all the benefits of being active interrelate, support and enhance each other, making them stronger than the sum of their parts.
For example, physical activity can improve life skills such as determination, self-discipline, time management, goal setting, emotional control and decision making, which in turn can have a powerful effect on success throughout life, influencing earning potential, social inclusion and feelings of self-worth. These problems are more likely to happen with excessive amounts of exercise, or by attempting an activity that the body is not yet prepared for, without proper warming-up or training.
More serious incidents are heart attacks, which are more likely to occur amongst individuals that already have heart disease, and suddenly engage in strenuous activity.
Physical activity and health
However, even people without existing heart disease, are not immune to heart attacks following sudden strenuous exertion. It is important to gradually build up the intensity and duration, so the body is able to cope with the increased demands on bones, muscles, heart and lungs. Muscle-strengthening activities should also be gradually increased over time. Initially, these activities should be done just 1 day a week starting at a light or moderate level of effort.
Over time, the number of days a week and level of effort intensity can be increased slightly until it becomes moderate to high.
Health Promotion Strategies Much work is already underway to promote physical activity. In particular HEPA Europe will encourage the inclusion of physical activity promotion with local health policy and within transport policy as a healthy means for sustainable transport.
By contrast, in moderate to low income countries like those in Latin America, the focus is on community based initiatives, where whole communities are encouraged to exercise together, e. A good example is the promotion of the active transport in the Netherlands. It has combined the urban planning to make it easy and safe, with changes in public attitudes towards such methods of transport.
Summary Physical inactivity is a substantial and increasing burden on health, mental well-being and economies, making an increase in physical activity levels a global public health challenge. There is a dose-response relationship between the level of physical activity and reduction in the major non-communicable disease risk - the more physically active, the greater the benefits to health.
Current guidelines have been set at the minimum amount of activity required to prevent the main non-communicable diseases, a level unlikely to have any adverse effects on musculoskeletal health.
Further health gains can be expected above these minimum requirements. Although the recommendations are likely to be perceived as achievable by the majority of the people, they are not met by most, apart from a minority of the European population.
There is a clear need for change, ranging from increased awareness, education, political support, a supportive social and urban environment, and multi-stakeholder interventions for sustained changes in physical activity behaviour. Annex 1 — Definitions of terms related to physical activity Table 2. This includes activities undertaken while working, playing, carrying out household chores, travelling and engaging in recreational pursuits.
For example lifting, carrying, walking, cycling, climbing stairs, housework, shopping, dancing, and gardening. Moderate intensity activity On an absolute scale, moderate intensity refers to activity performed at The review supports initiatives to encourage adolescents to engage in physical activity as it improves self-reported health status. Sub-optimal levels of physical activity can also be beneficial. Further research should use standardised measurement scales and objectively measured physical activity levels.
The roles of gender, income and culture should be further investigated. The association in adolescents may not follow the same pattern as in adults, since adolescents have not engaged in physical activity long enough for the perceived benefits in health status to accumulate.
Adolescents are likely to place a higher bearing on health behaviours rather than considering current or past health problems. This review aims to synthesise the current evidence base summarising the association between physical activity and self-reported health status in adolescents. Methods All studies any design were eligible for the review.
Inclusion criteria included studies on adolescents defined as age 10—18 that had measured i physical activity levels and ii self-reported health status, and summarized the relationship between them table 1. Table 1 Inclusion criteria used in search strategy Inclusion criteria published in the English language; published after the year and only including data collected after ; population studied is adolescent; 10—18 observation measured is level of self-reported physical activity; outcome measure referred to as health status, self-perceived good health or health related quality of life.
It is measured by a validated tool such as the PedsQL 4. Inclusion criteria used in search strategy Inclusion criteria published in the English language; published after the year and only including data collected after ; population studied is adolescent; 10—18 observation measured is level of self-reported physical activity; outcome measure referred to as health status, self-perceived good health or health related quality of life.
Physical Activity & Health: (EUFIC)
Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses criteria, 17 searches of the following bibliographic databases were undertaken: This was supplemented by manual searches, secondary citation and reference searches. Searches were undertaken by one reviewer E. Disagreements were reconciled through discussion.
The search strategy was limited to studies published after to include only most recent evidence, on the assumption that evidence before this date would not take account of the changes in adolescent activity due to the introduction of new technologies such as games consoles, the internet and smartphones.