Milestones: – - Office of the Historian
Three ethnic or religious conflicts have stood out of late: two occurred in the states of "Assam . India, history has cast its deepest shadow on Hindu-Muslim relations. Most of all, the conflict between India and Pakistan kept the roots of the. Over the last fifty years the nations of India and Pakistan have clashed on both The long-term religious conflicts between the Hindus and Muslim people of the. The Kashmir conflict is a territorial conflict primarily between India and Pakistan, having started . 5 Cross-border troubles; 6 Pakistan's relation with militants; 7 Water dispute; 8 Human rights abuses. Indian administered Kashmir.
Noorani Jinnah ended up squandering his leverage. He was willing to urge Junagadh to accede to India in return for Kashmir. For a plebiscite, Jinnah demanded simultaneous troop withdrawal for he felt that 'the average Muslim would never have the courage to vote for Pakistan' in the presence of Indian troops and with Sheikh Abdullah in power.
When Mountbatten countered that the plebiscite could be conducted by the United Nations, Jinnah, hoping that the invasion would succeed and Pakistan might lose a plebiscite, again rejected the proposal, stating that the Governors Generals should conduct it instead. Mountbatten noted that it was untenable given his constitutional position and India did not accept Jinnah's demand of removing Sheikh Abdullah.
Secretary in Patel's Ministry of States, V. Menon, admitted in an interview in that India had been absolutely dishonest on the issue of plebiscite. Noorani blames many Indian and Pakistani leaders for the misery of Kashmiri people but says that Nehru was the main culprit. The measure called for an immediate cease-fire and called on the Government of Pakistan 'to secure the withdrawal from the state of Jammu and Kashmir of tribesmen and Pakistani nationals not normally resident therein who have entered the state for the purpose of fighting.
One sticking point was whether the Azad Kashmiri army was to be disbanded during the truce stage or at the plebiscite stage. A two-part process was proposed for the withdrawal of forces. In the first part, Pakistan was to withdraw its forces as well as other Pakistani nationals from the state.
In the second part, "when the Commission shall have notified the Government of India" that Pakistani withdrawal has been completed, India was to withdraw the bulk of its forces. After both the withdrawals were completed, a plebiscite would be held.
The assistance given by Pakistan to the rebel forces and the Pakhtoon tribes was held to be a hostile act and the further involvement of the Pakistan army was taken to be an invasion of Indian territory. From the Indian perspective, the plebiscite was meant to confirm the accession, which was in all respects already complete, and Pakistan could not aspire to an equal footing with India in the contest.
It also held that the Maharaja had no authority left to execute accession because his people had revolted and he had to flee the capital.
It believed that the Azad Kashmir movement as well as the tribal incursions were indigenous and spontaneous, and Pakistan's assistance to them was not open to criticism. The UN mediators tended towards parity, which was not to India's satisfaction. McMahon states that American officials increasingly blamed India for rejecting various UNCIP truce proposals under various dubious legal technicalities just to avoid a plebiscite.
McMahon adds that they were 'right' since a Muslim majority made a vote to join Pakistan the 'most likely outcome' and postponing the plebiscite would serve India's interests. Dixon did not view the state of Jammu and Kashmir as one homogeneous unit and therefore proposed that a plebiscite be limited to the Valley.
Kashmir conflict - Wikipedia
Dixon agreed that people in Jammu and Ladakh were clearly in favour of India; equally clearly, those in Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas wanted to be part of Pakistan. This left the Kashmir Valley and 'perhaps some adjacent country' around Muzaffarabad in uncertain political terrain. This was not acceptable to India which rejected the Dixon plan. Another grounds for India's rejection of the limited plebiscite was that it wanted Indian troops to remain in Kashmir for "security purposes", but would not allow Pakistani troops the same.
However, Dixon's plan had encapsulated a withdrawal by both sides. Dixon had believed a neutral administration would be essential for a fair plebiscite. Pakistan protested to the Security Council which informed India that this development conflicted with the parties' commitments. The National Conference rejected this resolution and Nehru supported this by telling Dr Graham that he would receive no help in implementing the Resolution.
The delay caused frustration in Pakistan and Zafrullah Khan went on to say that Pakistan was not keeping a warlike mentality but did not know what Indian intransigence would lead Pakistan and its people to. India accused Pakistan of ceasefire violations and Nehru complained of 'warmongering propaganda' in Pakistan. Liaquat Ali Khan rejected Nehru's charge of warmongering propaganda.
The United States hoped to maintain a regional balance of power, which meant not allowing India to influence the political development of other states. However, a border conflict between India and China ended with a decisive Chinese victory, which motivated the United States and the United Kingdom to provide military supplies to the Indian Army.
After the clash with China, India also turned to the Soviet Union for assistance, which placed some strains on U. However, the United States also provided India with considerable development assistance throughout the s and s. After Pakistani troops invaded Kashmir, India moved quickly to internationalize the regional dispute.
The Security Council passed Resolution on September 20 calling for an end to the fighting and negotiations on the settlement of the Kashmir problem, and the United States and the United Kingdom supported the UN decision by cutting off arms supplies to both belligerents.
This ban affected both belligerents, but Pakistan felt the effects more keenly since it had a much weaker military in comparison to India. The UN resolution and the halting of arms sales had an immediate impact. Pakistan responds by detonating six nuclear devices of its own in the Chaghai Hills. The tests result in international sanctions being placed on both countries. In the same year, both countries carry out tests of long-range missiles.
The two sign the Lahore Declaration, the first major agreement between the two countries since the Simla Accord. Some of the diplomatic gains are eroded, however, after the Kargil conflict breaks out in May.
In OctoberGeneral Pervez Musharraf, the Pakistani chief of army staff, leads a military coup, deposing Nawaz Sharif, the then prime minister, and installing himself as the head of the government. Following that attack, Farooq Abdullah, the chief minister of Indian-administered Kashmir, calls on the Indian government to launch a full-scale military operation against alleged training camps in Pakistan.India and Pakistan: Forever rivals? - UpFront
That summit collapses after two days, with both sides unable to reach agreement on the core issue of Kashmir. On December 13, an armed attack on the Indian parliament in New Delhi leaves 14 people dead.
India blames Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Muhammad for the attacks. The attacks lead to a massing of India's and Pakistan's militaries along the LoC. The standoff only ends in Octoberafter international mediation. This year marks the beginning of the Composite Dialogue Process, in which bilateral meetings are held between officials at various levels of government including foreign ministers, foreign secretaries, military officers, border security officials, anti-narcotics officials and nuclear experts.
In November, on the eve of a visit to Jammu and Kashmir, the new Indian prime minister, Manmohan Singh, announces that India will be reducing its deployment of troops there. The fifth round of talks regarding the review of nuclear and ballistic missile-related CBMs is held as part of the Composite Dialogue Process. A series of Kashmir-specific CBMs are also agreed to including the approval of a triple-entry permit facility.
In October, cross-LoC trade commences, though it is limited to 21 items and can take place on only two days a week. On November 26, armed gunmen open fire on civilians at several sites in Mumbai, India.
More than people are killed in the attacks. Ajmal Kasab, the only attacker captured alive, says the attackers were members of Lashkar-e-Taiba. In the wake of the attacks, India breaks off talks with Pakistan.