Explain the relationship between vaccination and immunity

The immune system and immunisation | Immunisation Advisory Centre

explain the relationship between vaccination and immunity

If you hear the terms immunization, vaccination, and inoculation do you know What Is the Difference Between Immunization and Vaccination?. Immunity and vaccination for higher education. help our body to develop memory immunity, protecting us should we become infected with the live pathogen. This fact sheet explains Vaccines help develop immunity by imitating an infection. Once the imitation infection goes away, the body is left with a supply of.

The memory B cells as the name implies keep a memory of the organism that you were vaccinated against. If you are ever exposed to that organism, the dormant memory cells will recognise it straight away, and rapidly start multiplying and developing into plasma cells. Because the plasma cells have already been trained to produce antibodies against the organism, they are able to produce a large number of antibodies very quickly within hours.

The antibodies attach to the invading organisms and prevent them from attacking your healthy cells. And because the antibodies are produced so quickly, they are able to fight the disease before you even get sick. This accelerated and more intense immune response generated by the memory B cells is known as the secondary response.

It is faster and more effective because all the preparations for the attack were made when you were vaccinated. Different types of vaccines Most vaccines are injected, but some can be given as a liquid that is swallowed. There are 4 main types of vaccines: While the live vaccines can provide lifelong immunity after only one or 2 doses, periodic booster doses are needed to maintain immunity with some of the other types of vaccines.

While vaccines can sometimes cause a mild reaction such as soreness at the injection site or a slight feverthere are usually no serious adverse events associated with immunisation. Severe allergic reactions or serious side effects only very rarely occur. Some people worry that the vaccine will cause the very disease that it is supposed to prevent.

explain the relationship between vaccination and immunity

It is not possible for the other types of vaccines to cause disease in this way. People with weakened immune systems and pregnant women should consult their doctor before having vaccinations.

explain the relationship between vaccination and immunity

For most people, not being immunised is a far greater risk to their health than any side effects associated with vaccination. Frequently asked questions about immunisation updated 28 Sep Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing.

Analysis of the relationship between immunogenicity and immunity for viral subunit vaccines.

Australian Immunisation Handbook, 10th Edition How vaccines prevent disease updated 25 Apr The immune system is an extremely important defence mechanism that can identify an invading organism and destroy it.

Immunisation prevents disease by enabling the body to more rapidly respond to attack and enhancing the immune response to a particular organism. The first time the immune system sees a new antigen, it needs to prepare to destroy it. During this time, the pathogen can multiply and cause disease. However, if the same antigen is seen again, the immune system is poised to confine and destroy the organism rapidly.

Analysis of the relationship between immunogenicity and immunity for viral subunit vaccines.

This is known as adaptive immunity. Vaccines utilise this adaptive immunity and memory to expose the body to the antigen without causing disease, so that when then live pathogen infects the body, the response is rapid and the pathogen is prevented from causing disease. Depending on the type of infectious organism, the response required to remove it varies. Lines of defence The body prevents infection through a number of non-specific and specific mechanisms working on their own or together.

The largest of all is the skin which acts as a strong, waterproof, physical barrier and very few organisms are able to penetrate undamaged skin. There are other physical barriers and a variety of chemical defences. Examples of these non-specific defences are given below: Skin - a strong physical barrier, like a waterproof wall Mucus — a sticky trap secreted by all the surfaces inside the body that are directly linked to the outside, also contains antibodies and enzymes Cilia — microscopic hairs in the airways that move to pass debris and mucus up away from the lungs Lysozyme — a chemical enzyme present in tears and mucus that damages bacteria Phagocytes — various cells that scavenge and engulf debris and invading organisms, which form part of the surveillance system to alert the immune system of attack Commensal bacteria - bacteria on skin and gut that compete with potentially harmful bacteria for space and nutrients Acid - in stomach and urine, make it hard for any germs to survive Fever — elevated body temperature making conditions unfavourable for pathogens to survive The immune response An immune response is triggered when the immune system is alerted that something foreign has entered the body.

Triggers include the release of chemicals by damaged cells and inflammation, and changes in blood supply to an area of damage which attract white blood cells. White blood cells destroy the infection or convey chemical messages to other parts of the immune system.

Vaccination and Immunization

As blood and tissue fluids circulate around the body, various components of the immune system are continually surveying for potential sources of attack or abnormal cells. Antigens and antibodies Antigens are usually either proteins or polysaccharides long chains of sugar molecules that make up the cell wall of certain bacteria. Viruses can contain as few as three antigens to more than as for herpes and pox viruses; whereas protozoa, fungi and bacteria are larger, more complex organisms and contain hundreds to thousands of antigens.

An immune response initially involves the production of antibodies that can bind to a particular antigen and the activation of antigen-specific white blood cells. Antibodies immunoglobulins; Ig are protein molecules that bind specifically to a particular part of an antigen, so called antigenic site or epitope. They are found in the blood and tissue fluids, including mucus secretions, saliva and breast milk.

Normally, low levels of antibodies circulate in the body tissue fluids. However, when an immune response is activated greater quantities are produced to specifically target the foreign material.

Vaccination increases the levels of circulating antibodies against a certain antigen.

Immunity and vaccination

Antibodies are produced by a type of white blood cell lymphocyte called B cells. Each B cell can only produce antibodies against one specific epitope. When activated, a B cell will multiply to produce more clones able secrete that particular antibody. The class of antibody produced is determined by other cells in the immune system, this is known as cell-mediated immunity.

Primary response Upon exposure to a pathogen, the body will attempt to isolate and destroy it. Chemicals released by inflammation increase blood flow and attract white blood cells to the area of infection.

Specialist cells, known as phagocytes, engulf the target and dismantle it. This response leads to the production of antigen-specific antibodies.