Sociology and its Relationship with Other Social Sciences - Articlecom
Sociology is the study of the behavior of people as members of society. It studies the relationship that exists between human beings and their societies. People. The relationship between sociology and other social sciences. Sociology can be defined as the science that deals with human relationship. It is the study of how. Hence it is obvious that other social sciences are closely related to sociology. But inspite of their inter-relationship and inter-dependence both the sciences.
On the other hand history studies the past in systematic manner.
The Relationship of Sociology with Other Social Sciences
It deals with the past political system, social system, cultural system, leadership system, Governance system, organizations and institutions, language, art, literature, etc. It is necessary to study the historical development of the subject or content to understand it better.
Otherwise, it is incomplete study. As, sociology and History are inter-related with the above mentioned similarities, there are some differences also. They are as follows: Sociology Is abstract discipline of human experience and nature It is concrete discipline of human experience and nature Sociology tries to find out the general law of the society It tries to narrate the past events In chronological order Sociology is analytical and interpretive science History is descriptive science Sociology is general science as it tries to establish generalization History is particular science as it seeks to establish the sequence of events.
Society is comparatively young science. As it has the history of just two centuries. History is aged social science which have very long history 2. Sociology and Political Science Sociology studies the various social activities and social relationships of human beings. Whereas political Science studies the political activities are also conducted within the society as it deals with the political organizations, there principles and their activities.
It is also said that political science is incomplete without the study of sociological background. The state, government, nature of government organs, law and order, etc. In this context, the root ground of both sociology and Political Science are society. Sociology Sociology is the general Science. Political Science is a particular science.
Sociology and Economics Every society is influenced by economic factors whereas all the economic activities or process are determined by the existing social environment.
Relation of Sociology with Other Social Sciences
Political science is a special science. Political organisation is a special kind of social organisation and that is why political science is a special science while sociology is a general science. Political Science deals with organised communities only.
Sociology deals with both organised and unorganised communities whereas Political Science is concerned only with organised communities. As such sociology is prior to Political Science. Unlike Political Science which treats only conscious activities of man, sociology treats unconscious activities of man also.
Political Science starts with the assumption that man is a political being; sociology goes behind this assumption and tries to explain how and why man became a political being.
Sociology and Anthropology lie so close together that they often appear as two names for the same field of enquiry. Thus according to its etymological meaning, Anthropology is the study of man as such that is a study of the development of human race. Anthropology has thus a very wide field of study. Anthropology has been divided into three divisions: Anthropology thus devotes its attention entirely to the study of man and his culture as they developed in times long past.
Sociology, on the other hand, studies the same phenomena as they exist at present. In fact the historical part of Sociology is identical with Cultural Anthropology.
Anthropology has contributed substantially to the study of Sociology.
Sociology has to depend upon Anthropology to understand the present day social phenomena from our knowledge of the past. Sociology has borrowed cultural area, cultural traits, interdependent traits, cultural lag and other conceptions from social anthropology on whose basis cultural sociology has developed. The discoveries of Linton and Kardiner have influenced sociology in no small degree.
From their researches it is evident that each society has its own culture and the personality of its members is moulded according to it in their infancy.
Likewise the research done by Malinowski has proved valuable to sociology. He has given a functional view point to the study of culture. The researches of Franz Boas and Otto Kineberg have proved that there is no co-relation between anatomical characteristics and mental superiority.
Relation of Sociology with Other Social Sciences
The concept of racial superiority has been disproved by anthropology. Karoeber has called sociology and anthropology twin sisters.Relationship of sociology with other social sciences part 2
Evans Pritchard considers social anthropology to be a branch of sociology. In the same way, some of the conclusions drawn by sociologists have also helped the anthropologists. For example, anthropologists like Morgan and his followers have come to the conclusion regarding the existence of primitive communism from the conception of private property in our modern society. It studies its political and legal problems, family organisation, religion, art, industries and occupations etc.
Sociology studies only its particular aspects. The focus of sociologist is social interaction. Secondly, Anthropology studies cultures which are small and static while Sociology studies civilizations which are vast and dynamic.
Thirdly, Anthropology and Sociology are separate sciences as the former is the study of man and his culture as they developed in times long past; while the latter studies the same phenomena as they are at present.
It does not make any suggestions for the future. The fact that society is influenced by economic factors while economic processes are largely determined by the social environments clearly proves that the relation between Sociology and Economics is very intimate. Economics is defined as a study of mankind in ordinary business of life or to be more exact, it is the science of wealth in its three phases of production, distribution and consumption.
It is thus concerned with that part of individual and social action which is most closely connected with the attainment and with use of material requisites of well being. Economics, in other words, is concerned with material welfare of the human beings. But economic welfare is only a part of human welfare and it can be sought only with the proper knowledge of social laws. Economics cannot go far ahead without the help of sociology and other social sciences.
For instance, in order to solve economic problems of unemployment, poverty, business cycle or inflation an economist has to take into consideration the social phenomena existing at the particular time. Sociology is thus of considerable help to economics in providing specific data into which economic generalisations may be fitted.
Economic and social order is inextricably interwoven. Many of the problems of sociology and economics are common. The problems of population growth, environmental pollution, slum clearance, child and family welfare, and urbanisation are as much economic as sociological which cannot be solved unless and until the social attitudes of the people are given due consideration. The theories of socialism, communism, democracy and welfare state are nothing but the theories of social reorganisation.
Economic forces play a very important role in every aspect of our social life. It is for this reason that sociologists have been concerned with economic institutions. The earliest sociologists like Spencer have included the economic activity of man in their analysis of social relationships.
Sumner, Durkheim and Weber also approached the study of society through its economic institutions. Karl Marx and Fredrick Engels had gone to the extent of asserting that economic factor was the sole motive force of the society. Since their times, economic determination Economic conditions have a determining influence over the social has found a significant place in the theories of many social scientists seeking to explain this vital phenomenon.
In spite of inter-dependence of these two sciences, as explained above they are quite distinct from each other, i the field of sociology is wider, firstly, the field of Economics is restricted only to the economic activities of man whereas Sociology is concerned with all the relationships which are not simply economic but social.
The scope of Sociology is thus much wider than that of economics; ii Sociology has a comprehensive viewpoint. But a sociologist, on the other hand, is primarily interested in the social aspects of economic activities rather than in the mechanism of production and distribution, iii Economics is much older than Sociology. Thirdly, economics is much older a science than sociology. Though philosophers like Comte would subordinate economics to, and include it in sociology.
Sociology is a science of only recent growth whereas economics has attained an advanced degree of maturity. It has been realised from ancient times that Geography has a great impact on human society, the influences of geographical conditions on human society are predominant and that there is a close relationship between physical conditions and social phonemena. Geographical environment as defined by MacIver consists of those conditions that nature provides for man. It includes the earth surface with all its physical features and natural resources, the distribution of land and water, mountain and plains, minerals, plants and animals, the climate and all the cosmic forces, gravitational, electric, radiational that play upon the earth and affect the life of man.
There is no denying the fact that there is a correspondence between physical conditions and modes of living e. One can also observe the differences between the modes and exigencies of human life in mountains, in the plains and by the seaboard, in the desert and in the forest.
Some of the thinkers have attributed a dominant role to Geography, regarding it as the primary determinant of wealth and health, the size or energy of populations, of their customs and social organisations, of their creeds and philosophies. One of the pioneers of modern social geography was a Frenchman Le Play who in his important study of European workers had developed the thesis that locality determines work and thus has a great influence on the economic organisation of the family and this social institutions of the people.
The emphasis of Le Play and his successors upon the relationship between the characteristics of the physical environment and social development has influenced the sociologists at other places also. They have made us aware of the inter-play between climate and topography and the various aspects of the physical environment on the one side and the political and economic, technological and cultural phenomena on the other. But we should not lay too much stress on geographical factors determining the social life in a particular region.
It is not necessary that similar environments should produce similar cultures. We have even in primitive societies different occupations being followed by different people in the same regional setting. The geographical environments alone never explain the rise of a civilization. The growth of civilization changes and minimises the direct influence of local geographical conditions.
Many of the occupations of the modern man have no relation to the geographical environments. As the social heritage grows the immediate geographical factors would assume a less determinant role in the interpretation of society.
Man has assumed great control over natural factors so that the overall influence of geographical forces is no longer overpowering. The fact, however, remains that geography is a contributing, if not a determining, factor of human progress and, therefore, the relation between Sociology and Geography is intimate.
Ethics is the science of morality. It is concerned with the moral rightness and wrongness of human action. Ethics and Sociology are intimately related to each other. Man is a social being. He acquires moral standards notions of right and wrong as a member of a social group.
In other words, it is the society which influences the mental and moral development of the individual and it is the individual who in return seeks to conform his actions to the moral standards of his social group. Thus the real significance of moral life lies amidst a social group or in society. Sociology is primarily concerned with the study of the social groups and it investigates into all aspects of human life — economic, political, religious, moral and cultural.
Ethics throws light on the moral life of the primitive individuals and institutions. This provides a background of human conduct and may thus serve a good purpose for contrasting and comparing the moral conduct of the modern life with that of the primitive man. Further, the personal good of the individual must at the same time be in harmony with the general good of the society as a whole.
It is here that both Sociology and Ethics come close to each other. This close relationship between the two has induced some ethical thinkers to regard Ethics as a branch of Sociology. An ethics worked out upon the basis of the knowledge furnished by the sciences will make a larger use, therefore, of sociological knowledge than of any other form of scientific knowledge. Firstly, Sociology is a positive science, while Ethics is a normative science.
Sociology studies institutions, customs and manners as they are or have been while Ethics looks upon them as they ought to be. Secondly, Sociology studies men and their social relations collectively while Ethics studies men individually as moral agents of the society. Thirdly, Sociology is merely speculative and has no practical bearing on any field of social life. Ethics, on the other hand, has some practical bearing on our conduct.
It seeks to formulate the rules of conduct which all people should observe. Fourthly, Sociology employs mainly historical method in the investigation of its problems.
Ethics, on the other hand, seeks to explain human conduct with reference to an end or ideal. Finally, while Sociology is concerned- with the study of progress of social groups from the point of view of time, Ethics is concerned with the progress of society from the point of view of morality. Sociology and Social Psychology: