We seem to use the terms manager and leader interchangeably. I know that I to the vision. This requires getting buy-in from a variety of stakeholders, communicating broadly, and providing motivation and inspiration to staff. Operations leaders can shape efficient and effective business processes by employing these An Operations Manager is Realistic employees are a valuable resource and can effectively communicate with operations staff. Results showed from a study “The Relationship between Transformational Leadership and. of a real-life nursing situation and contains a series of leadership challenges, tips , to show a family how to do aftercare, to help a client communicate effectively changes that can challenge you are the increased diversity of staff and .. should put greater or less focus on the task or the relationship between the leader.
That not only means delivering the hard facts and providing thoughtful and constructive feedback, but listening to empowered employees who are part of the same team. As an example, if an operations leader realizes that production is slowing down, costing the company revenue, communicating directly with employees might be a better approach.How Communication affects Leadership
Effective organizational leaders can impress upon employees the need to improve and explain the reasoning behind the request. If a goal cannot be reached, employees are empowered to share with management the necessary information for developing alternative, achievable plans. An Operations Manager Looks for Efficiency An effective operations manager is defined as the master and commander of managing the input and output of resources. These professionals optimize processes to decrease the cost of goods per unit, making it possible to sell at a lower cost and leaving a margin just high enough to remain agile in competitive business environments.
Processes executed in this fashion are typically able to reward the hard work of the teams involved in production. What is the secret weapon? Production from a system pushing out products in batches is taken to a flowing system that systematically produces single units as needed, at an optimum cost. An operations manager need to make sure focus remains on the organizational objective, rather than the narrow focus of different department and division goals.
In order to accomplish this, operations leaders must implement areas of flexibility into all stages of operations and facilitate cross-functional communication, enabling adaptability between teams and departments.
Anyone who has studied the way Steve Jobs operated at Apple understands how his demand for perfection drove his people to do everything possible to meet those demands. The data-carrying capacity of media is similar across organizations, but the symbol-carrying capacity varies from one organization to another due to cultural differences.
Thus, communicators should select channels based on message ambiguity, media richness, organizational culture and available resources. Measureable Benefits Internal communication continues to evolve in a dynamic world characterized by an explosion of new technologies, intense global competition and rapid change. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that effective internal communications help increase employee job satisfaction, morale, productivity, commitment, trust and learning; improve communication climate and relationships with publics; and enhance quality, revenues and earnings.
Here are some examples: More than 80 percent of employees polled in the US and UK said that employee communication influences their desire to stay with or leave an organization. A significant improvement in communication effectiveness in organizations was linked to a Effective communication facilitates engagement and builds trust, which is a critical ingredient in strong, viable organizations Grates, Engaged employees enhance business performance because they influence customer behavior, which directly affects revenue growth and profitability Towers Perrin, The Evolution of Internal Communication Social theorist James Colemantraced the rise of large organizations and claimed they have changed communications practices and personal relationships through two powerful interactions: Large organizations were relatively new in the early 20th century, apart from government and the military, so theories developed to explain how organizations worked and tried to achieve their goals.
This section outlines five theoretical approaches that evolved in the last century—the classical, human relations, human resources, systems and cultural approaches. Communication features or characteristics of each approach are briefly described.
More comprehensive treatments may be found in many communication texts, e. Classical Approaches Sometimes referred to as the machine metaphor because of how employees were viewed as interchangeable parts, this approach is grounded in scientific management theories of work and workers in the early 20th century.
Frederick Taylor was the best known proponent of this approach. He studied factory production lines and concluded that work processes could be improved by applying scientific principles to jobs and workers. These included such things as designing each task to improve performance, hiring workers who possessed characteristics that matched each job and training workers and rewarding them for productivity achievements.
Henri Fayol believed that operational efficiency could be improved through better managerial practices. He prescribed five elements of managing planning, organizing, command, coordination and control and 14 principles of administration.
During times of emergency, however, he indicated that employees might communicate with each other across the organization. Some key components of this approach included: Two key communication goals were to prevent misunderstandings, which might impair productivity or quality, and to convey decisions and directives of top management. The formal structure of organizations drove top-down communication, primarily through print channels.
The content of most communications was task or rule oriented.
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The social side of communication was largely ignored, and employees relied heavily on the grapevine for such information. Human Relations Approaches In the s, the focus shifted from work tasks to employees and their needs, and the Hawthorne Studies spurred this movement.
Carried out at the Western Electric Company in Chicago, the studies revealed the importance of groups and human relationships in work.
Elton Mayo and his Harvard colleagues discovered that employees who worked in friendly teams, with supportive supervisors, tended to outperform employees who worked in less favorable conditions. In his view, the key to cooperation was communication: These approaches focused on opposing assumptions that managers may hold for workers, and the corresponding behaviors of managers.
Simply put, Theory X managers believe workers lack motivation, resist change and are indifferent to organizational goals. Thus, managers must provide strong, forceful leadership to direct and control employees. Theory Y managers believe employees are highly motivated, creative and driven to satisfy their needs for achievement.
The role of managers, then, is to elicit those tendencies through employee participation in decision making, managing by objectives and problem solving in work teams. This approach included more F-T-F communication and acknowledged the importance of internal communications.
Employee / Organizational Communications | Institute for Public Relations
Downward communication still dominated, but feedback was gathered to gauge employee satisfaction. Some social information was added to the task-oriented content of communication, and managerial communications were less formal. Human Resources Approaches The human resources approach Miles, was widely adopted by organizations in the s. This participative, team approach to management-employee relations recognized that employees can contribute both physical and mental labor. The preferred team-management style—high on concern for both people and production—became the basis for management development practices in a number of companies.
Quality control circles, decentralized organizations, total quality management and employee participation groups are manifestations of this approach. Focusing more on organizational structure, Rensis Likerttheorized four organizational forms and labeled them System I through System IV.
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Likert believed that a System IV organization, characterized by multi-directional communication and a participatory style and structure, would spur productivity gains and reduce absenteeism and turnover. Other theorists argued that the best leadership style would vary from one event to another, depending on contingencies in the environment.
Fiedler said that leaders should first define a contingency and then determine the most appropriate leadership behaviors to deal with it. Contingency theory recognizes that organizations and environments are constantly changing, and there is a need to monitor environments and carefully analyze information before making decisions. Communication became multidirectional and more relational.
Feedback was sought to enhance problem solving and stimulate idea sharing. Innovation content was added to social and task information in communications. Concepts of employee trust and commitment emerged as important issues, and organizations began to share communication decision-making among employees.
Systems Approaches In the s some theorists adopted a systems perspective, viewing organizations as complex organisms competing to survive and thrive in challenging environments. In general systems theory, any system is a group of parts that are arranged in complex ways and which interact with each other through processes to achieve goals vonBertalanffy, An auto supply company, for example, consists of a number of departments or units production, marketing, finance, saleseach of which includes individuals and teams.
The functioning of any of these units or subsystems relies on others in the organization; they are interdependent. The company is also part of a larger supra system—the automobile industry. Systems and subsystems have boundaries that are selectively opened or closed to their environments, allowing the flow of information and other resources.
Individuals who exchange information with other systems or groups customers, government personnel, suppliers are boundary spanners. Media outlets provide other important links between organizations and the environment. Weick used systems theory to explain organizational behavior and the process of sense making. He argued that communication is the core process of organizing; through information produced by processes or patterns of behavior, systems can increase their knowledge and reduce uncertainty about the complex environments in which they operate.
Communication is vital for exchanging information in and among subsystems through multidirectional channels which are used in internal communications. Feedback processes help systems adjust, change and maintain control. Collective decision-making processes and shared responsibilities for communication are more prevalent. Cultural Approaches Cultural approaches emerged in the s in the context of increasing competition from Japan and other nations in the global marketplace.
As the performance of American corporations declined, management scholars looked for other explanations of the behaviors and practices in the troubled companies.
The cultural approach was attractive because of its dynamic nature and the kind of depth insights it can provide Schein, Two popular books in the s influenced organizational practices and structures and helped culture gain mainstream recognition. These included customer focus, employee empowerment, trust, shared values and lean organizational structures. Miller distinguished between prescriptive and descriptive approaches to examining organizational cultures. This approach rejects the notion of a one-size-fits-all cultural formula for success and focuses on how communications and interactions lead to shared meaning.
Descriptive approaches also call attention to other important aspects of organizational culture, e. Communication and culture share a reciprocal relationship Modaff et al. Communications help create and influence culture through formal and informal channels, stories, shared experiences and social activities.
Focus on the facts — have all the right information and evidence if possible, and use examples. Specific examples, guidelines and tools We've provided a list of common sense scenarios that business owners may face below. Constant lateness An employee is constantly late to work. You've spoken to them informally, but now you want to speak to them in a more formal setting.
To solve the problem, you should: A job well done An employee has completed a major project and you want to give them positive reinforcing feedback. To give great feedback, you should: To best support the employee, you should: Find out more about how to deal with redundancy and retrenchment including creating a redundancy pack and final payments.