Difference between Archaeologist and Geologist | Archaeologist vs Geologist
Relationship of Prehistoric Archaeology with Allied Sciences – Geology, . between the death of an individual and its subsequent burial whereas diagenesis . Archaeology and Geology have in common the aims of understanding past life exploring the relationships between culture and the natural world. Archaeology. So how do people (either geologists or archaeologists) record stratigraphic sequences and particularly the temporal stratigraphic relationships between strata if.
On the other hand Collin and Paul define archaeology as partly discovery of treasures of the past, partly the meticulous work of scientific analyst, partly the exercise of the creative imagination. Renfrew and Bahn Geology can be defined as the study of solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the process by which they change.
Geology can also refer to the study of the solid features of any celestial body. It gives insight into the history of Earth by providing the primary evidence for plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life, and past climates.
Geology has been divided into two major groups namely; planetary geology and applied geology. This new field of study is called planetary geology sometimes known as astrogeology and relies on known geologic principles to study other bodies of the solar system. Applied geology is the geology that is used in various areas of practice including mining, engineering, hydrology and environmental issues and, in due course, archaeology. According to Norman and Evan The first decision that must be made in any new archaeological program is where to dig.
In many cases, the decision can be based on historical records, by the visible remains of ancient construction, or by the discovery of abundant artifacts. However, to see deep enough into the surface so that decision can be made on specific target areas for excavation, and also to obtain an idea of what artifacts and constructions to expect, techniques involving geology are increasingly used.
Analysis and interpretation of archaeological site and its environment. In archaeological studies, landscapes and environment can be recreated through studies of geomorphology and sedimentology embedded in geology. As such, geology is used to analyses the deposits found in the surface that provides much of the evidence for changes in land forms over time.
These deposits may be residual materialsformed in place by weathering of underlying formations, or may have been formed elsewhere and then transported by wind, water, or humans to their present site of deposition.
The kind and amount of surficial materials change with changing land surface and climatic conditions and so offer the est evidence regarding the evolution of the landscape. An understanding of these changes on a site will allow re-creation of the palaeoenvironment at the time of occupation and modeling of the prehistoric land-use patterns. Archaeological exploration in an area is facilitated by first pinpointing desirable habitation sites of the time and then targeting these sites for geophysical and geological prospecting.
Excavation process, geology and geomorphic-sedimentologic information can help develop excavation strategies. Such information commonly allows a better idea of the distribution and nature of buried artifacts and may explain anomalous surficial redistribution of artifacts, for example, by downslope wash or sediment burial.
In doing that three major phases are involved; Geomorphic mapping that provides descriptions of the landforms, drainage pattern, surficial deposits, tectonic features and any active geomophological process; analysis of the erosion process that carved the land forms-including soil formation, sediment removal or deposition and tectonic uplift-are documented; the land-forms, climate, and surficial deposits of today are extrapolated back to reconstruct palaeoenvironmrnt and palaeoclimate at the time of the occupation of the site.
Geology helps in archaeological artifact analysis since it can be used to determine the sources of raw materials used in the artifact. For example, the development and spread of iron technology were clearly evident in the production of pots at different sites in the Tigris-Euphrates Valley beginning about BC. The designs were universally used and emanated from single sites, so that archaeologically it appeared that the pots were being exported from those sites.
However, since the materials used at each site were determined to be local, technology was exported not the pottery. Each site must have had its own production center, which took advantage of the raw materilas: Both archaeology and geology use various dating techniques in obtaining both absolute and relative dates of various materials.
The methods used in dating can be explained through various laws or principles that include; The principle of Uniformitarianismthis was a fundamental principle of geology advanced by the 18th century Scottish physician and geologist James Hutton.
The principle states that the geologic processes observed in operation that modify the Earth's crust at present have worked in much the same way over geologic time. The principle of intrusive relationships. This principle concerns crosscutting intrusions. In geology, when an igneous intrusion cuts across a formation of sedimentary rock, it can be determined that the igneous intrusion is younger than the sedimentary rock. There are a number of different types of intrusions, including stocks, laccoliths, batholiths, sills and dikes.
Such principle can be applied in archaeology to determine the age of sediments. The principle of cross-cutting relationships. This dating principle pertains to the formation of faults and the age of the sequences through which they cut.
Geology and Archaeology The Geological layers formed at sites help us construct the climatic conditions prevalent at a certain time and environments in which ancient cultures existed. All objects made from metal and stone originally come from a geological source.
Geological principles play a very big part in the indirect dating and relative age calculations of sites and artifacts. The principle of stratification is one of the basic principles in Archaeological dating, this states that the lower layers are usually the oldest with some exceptions - this is a geological principle UNISA Also stratigraphic-geomorphological dating method plays a role.
The study of ancient glacial deposits and changes it brought to the landscape is important for Archaeology, the whole chronology of the Pleistocene is based on the interpretation of natural and geological phenomena created by the glaciers. Also, further on, pedological investigations concerns itself with the study of the rate of the building up of certain 3 soils as a means to deduce climatic conditions that cause that build up of soil and the rate thereof UNISA Geophysical exploration can detect a feature at any depth and also is a relative cheap form of surveying.
A well-known example of its application was at the site of ancient Sybaris, in Italy, where the Greeks established a colony renowned for its "sybaritic" lifestyle. Over the period from toshe Ralph worked on site in Italy for a total of about two years. She made betweenandmagnetic measurements, which enabled the archaic roof tiles of Sybaris to be located at a depth of 4 m beneath the alluvium that had accumulated over 2, years McGOVERN Zoology and Archaeology The assumption that the spread of animal species is determined by environmental conditions allows us to make inferences about the environment by studying faunal remains.
This is particularly important to point out subsistence patterns.
The Perception of what faunal analysts do and should do varies among archaeologists. At one end faunal analysis is a set of procedures to identify and record animal bone remains with a view toward documenting the history of human impact on animals, these are called archaeozoologists.
At the other end is analysis and interpretation of faunal remains in the context of particular archaeological problems with a focus on interactions between humans and animals within a specific social and cultural context.
The relationship between Archaeology and the natural sciences () | Elmor Becker - guiadeayuntamientos.info
An example of the application of Zoology has been that of Sebastian Payne in Anatolia and southeastern Europe. In a study of sampling methods, he demonstrated that bones of medium and small animals can be significantly underrepresented in a hand-picked faunal assemblage when compared to a sieved assemblage.
For the material from Agvan Kale, he developed a technique for recording tooth wear in sheep and goats and, subsequently, studied tooth wear patterns in hundreds of living Angora goats in order to be better able to 4 determine age at death of animals represented in the archaeological record. From aging data such as these, it is possible to describe a "kill-off pattern" that reflects hunting or husbandry practices employed in the past McGOVERN It has to be said that future studies that move past just dietary reconstruction to broader environmental archaeology questions will increase the field's contributions to our understanding of the environmental consequences of past human action LANDEN Botany and Archaeology No matter what the time period or geographical area, plants played an important role in human culture.
As data about the natural environment, land-use practices, diet, architecture, and trade in exotic plant materials, plant remains also reflect many as- pects of society, including social practices, such as eating, the organization of labor, and status differentiation.
Difference between Archaeologist and Geologist
The three major categories of archaeobotanical materials are macro-remains, pollen, and phytoliths. Macro-remains are relatively large items that generally comprise the bulk of plant remains re-covered from archaeological sites.The Mountains of Italy : Documentary on the Connection Between the Culture and Geology of Italy
Pollen analysis also fossil pollen analysisthe science concerned with the study of pollen spores, play an important role in the determination of climatic change and ecological conditions. Many micro-botanical remains such pollen and phytoliths are able to survive after the plant has died or burned.
This quality makes it much useful in a lot of sites. Dendrochronology also forms part of this field. This dating technique determines dates and ages of artifacts and sites by the analysis of growth rings in trees associated to archaeological objects UNISA Pollen analysis also serves as an important form of indirect dating in Archaeology.
Especially in arid, waterlogged or acidic deposits that facilitates preservation of pollen it has been used extensively to reconstruct the vegetation of a certain area and time frame UNISA Renewed excavations in and and archaeobotanical study have portrayed the picture of ancient plant and land-use practices at Gordion between the Late Bronze Age and medieval times.
Land clearance for fuel and agriculture, the grazing of domesticated animals, and, in the Phrygian period, construction seem to have had the cumulative but gradual effect of reducing natural tree cover there was. Since fuel is rarely transported from far away, fuel remains enable one to monitor the vegetation growing relatively close to a settlement.
At Gordion, the analysis showed a decline in juniper relative to oak. The absence of juniper fuel in contemporary Phrygian deposits suggests that juniper timber had already become a fairly rare material, reserved for or limited to use in the royal tombs. Plant remains enable us to assess human impact on the environment.
As direct, site-specific evidence of agricultural and culinary activities, they enrich our understanding of how people lived. Archaeobotanical research at Gordion shows both skeptics and the converted how bits and fragments of charred remains help create a picture of the lives of ancient people and the landscape they shaped and inhabited McGOVERN