Relationship between chromosome gene and allele

What’s the Difference Between a Gene and an Allele? |

relationship between chromosome gene and allele

Chromosome is the vehicle on which genes reside. The number of genes present on each chromosome depends on its size and length. Gene is a portion of. Each parent provides one variation of the gene, called an allele, to the Genes are found on structures called chromosomes, long pieces of. The short answer is that an allele is a variant form of a gene. Explained in greater detail, each gene resides at a specific locus (location on a chromosome) in two.

Each of of them codes for an amino acid that is kind of connected together to form, connected together to form a protein.

What’s the Difference Between a Gene and an Allele?

So that's one amino acid right over there. This could be another amino acid right over there. We can keep going on and on and on and on.

relationship between chromosome gene and allele

You could have another Amino Acid right over here, and then they all bond to each other and they're brought actually to the mRNA from a, by a functional RNA group. And so there are functional things other than proteins that this could code for. So you can have tRNA and we've seen this before in previous videos. It's this little squiggly line, matches up the the appropriate Codon, and then puts that Amino Acid in place.

So RNA doesn't have to only play this kind of in between messenger function. It actually can play a functional or a structural role. In fact there are theories that the earliest life, the most primitive life was nothing but self replicating RNA and then the systems became more, and more, and more complicated and complex until eventually you end up with things like redwood trees and hippopotami.

Elephants, but whatever else, but it all started with potentially self replicating RNA. Some people say it might be some type of proteins are able to replicate, who knows, but RNA is definitely, is definitely an interesting character in this.

So each of these Genes they can code for a type of protein or even a functional RNA. That's what a Gene is.

relationship between chromosome gene and allele

Now what about an Allele? When the Allele is a specific variation of the Gene. So for example, let's say that you look at the at the same stretch of DNA.

relationship between chromosome gene and allele

We're both human beings and we have for the most part very similar DNA. So this is-- Actually let me straighten it out. Now we're both human beings and most of our genetic material is fairly similar, but we might have variations in how this Gene is coded. For example, you might have or I might have a let's say, I have a an Adenine right there, but right at that exact spot you might have a different base.

You might have a, I don't know, you might have a, you might have-- Actually let me just-- You might have a Thymine right over there.

So it's encoding for a protein, or you know, functional RNA that's playing the same role. Maybe it has a role in the immune system or role in your skin color or role in how your brain develops, but there's a variation.

There's a variation in how it's coded.

Genetic inheritance

Now some of these variations which could arise through mutations, it might not have any impact in the function of the eventual protein that gets constructed. You might just have a different Amino Acid sometimes.

In fact, you might not even have a different Amino Acid because many times you have two Codons coding for the same Amino Acid, but even in a case you might have one different Amino Acid in a protein that has 4, Amino Acids it doesn't change how that protein acts or how it functions.

Or sometimes it might. It might change how that protein functions. It might change how that protein regulates other things and whoever knows whatever else, and so you could imagine that you have Genes.

This Gene right over here.

relationship between chromosome gene and allele

One chromosome of each pair is inherited from the mother and the other one is inherited from the father. The chromosome in each pair carries the same gene in the same location. These genes could be the same, or different versions: Alleles are different versions of the same gene. For example, the gene for eye colour has an allele for blue eye colour and an allele for brown eye colour.

The relationship between nucleus, chromosome, dna, genes, and alleles

For any gene, a person may have the same two alleles, known as homozygous or two different ones, known as heterozygous. A dominant allele is always expressed, even if one copy is present. Dominant alleles are represented by a capital letter, for example you could use a B. The allele for brown eyes, B, is dominant. You only need one copy of this allele to have brown eyes. Two copies will still give you brown eyes.

A recessive allele is only expressed if the individual has two copies and does not have the dominant allele of that gene.

What Is the Relationship Between a Chromosome & an Allele? | Sciencing

Recessive alleles are represented by a lower case letter, for example, b. The allele for blue eyes, b, is recessive.

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You need two copies of this allele to have blue eyes. Homozygous alleles are both identical for the same characteristic, for example BB or bb.

relationship between chromosome gene and allele