RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COLOR AND EMOTION: A STUDY OF COLLEGE STUDENTS | Ziera Yunus - guiadeayuntamientos.info
Ninety-eight college students were asked to indicate their emotional responses to five principle hues (i.e., red, yellow, green, blue, purple), five intermediate. Abstract: Ninety-eight college students were asked to indicate their emotional responses to five principle hues (i.e., red, yellow, green, blue, purple), five. Download Citation on ResearchGate | On Sep 1, , Naz Kaya and others published Relationship between Color and Emotion: A Study of College Students }.
Ninety-eight college students were asked to indicate their emotional responses to five principle hues i. The color stimuli were referenced from the Munsell Color System. The results revealed that the principle hues comprised the highest number of positive emotional responses, followed by the intermediate hues and the achromatic colors.
The color green evoked mainly positive emotions such as relaxation and comfort because it reminded most of the respondents of nature. The color green-yellow had the lowest number of positive responses because it was associated with vomit and elicited the feelings of sickness and disgust.
For the achromatic colors, white attained a large number of positive responses, followed by the colors black and gray. The reasons for the color-emotion associations are discussed and future research areas are suggested. Introduction Color is an inseparable part of our everyday lives and its presence is evident in everything that we perceive.
It is widely recognized that colors have also a strong impact on our emotions and feelings Hemphill, ; Lang, ; Mahnke, For instance, the color red has been associated with excitement, orange has been perceived as distressing and upsetting, purple as dignified and stately, yellow as cheerful, and blue has been associated with comfort and security Ballast, ; Wexner, Moreover, some colors may be associated with several different emotions and some emotions are associated with more than one color Linton,Saito, Red, symbolically known as a dominant and dynamic color, has an exciting and stimulating hue effect.
Finally, the color gray was mainly associated with negative emotions Reasons given for negative emotional responses to gray consistently showed that the color gray tends to make reference to bad weather, rainy, cloudy or foggy days and brings out the feelings of sadness, depression, and boredom.
Discussion The primary goal of this study was to examine the color-emotion associations among college students, referencing color stimuli from the standardized Munsell Color System. Based on Munsell Color System, the present study used five principle i. Overall, the participants' responses of color-emotion associations for the principle hues were positive The color green elicited mainly positive emotional responses, including the feelings of relaxation, calmness, and happiness as well as comfort, peace, and hope.
This is somewhat in agreement with the findings of Saitowhose subjects found green to be refreshing and beautiful. Reasons given for positive responses to green showed that green was associated with nature, grass, trees, and reminds someone of outdoors and springtime, consistent with Hemphill's findings.
Similarly, Saito noted that some of the Asian subjects who preferred green indicated the positive feeling about the color because of its association with the image of a forest.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COLOR AND EMOTION: A STUDY OF COLLEGE STUDENTS
Blue elicited a high number of positive emotional responses, including the feelings of relaxation and calmness, happiness, comfort, peace, and hope, with a low number of negative responses, including sadness and depression.
Reasons that blue elicited positive emotions seem to be because many participants associated the color blue with the ocean, beach, water, or the sky and thus inducing relaxing and calming effect.
Blue evoked negative emotions because it was associated with the night and dark skies, thus making someone feel depressed. One respondent said blue made her sad because "it makes you feel blue".
Colors are rich with symbolism. This symbolism can be apparent in how an individual associates colors with things, objects or physical space. For instance, in the present study, the color yellow-red was associated with the color of autumn or Halloween.
One respondent said that yellow-red made her happy because "it reminds me of school buses and my childhood".
- RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COLOR AND EMOTION: A STUDY OF COLLEGE STUDENTS.
Furthermore, the color blue-green was associated not only with the ocean and the sky, but also reminded some respondents of cool mints and toothpaste. Red-purple was associated with the color of red wine, plum, bridesmaid dress, or the color of a bedroom. One said red-purple makes her feel happy because "it reminds me of being in love". In addition, the color red was associated not only with love and romance, but also with evil, Satan and blood. One respondent said that the color red reminded her of Valentine's Day and the shape of heart.
Another said that the color reminds her of red lingerie and Victoria's Secret. Some associated black with "power," and said it reminded them of nice sport cars. Black made some respondents feel sophisticated and reminded them of "fashion and clothing".
Yet, another respondent said black made him sad and reminded him of "funerals where people wear black".
Therefore, it seems that a color-related emotion is highly dependent on personal preference and one's past experience with that particular color. A replication of this study at different institutions in the United States should give us a more comprehensive understanding of the issues raised here.
Cross-site studies could be conducted to identify similar or different patterns in students' emotional associations to colors.
Moreover, color conventions differ from one society to another. In Western cultures, red is supposed to be a fiery color, green is said to be soothing.
Another well-known example is with the two achromatic colors, black and white. Black is accepted as the symbolism of mourning in some countries, however it symbolizes wedding in some others Linton, Many attempts have been made to identify the impact of various hues, but it cannot be ascertained whether these reactions are innate or cultural.
For example, death and mourning are associated with the color black in Western traditions, whereas in China the color of death is white.
Our findings of both positive and negative feelings about the color black were in agreement with those of Saitoalthough the specific associations differed between the two studies. In the present study, the color black was associated not only with royalty, power, and wealth, but also with death, mourning, and tragic events.
Saito noted positive images of clearness, tightness, sharpness, dignity, and nobleness, but negative associations with anxiety, fear, sin, and death. Saito also found a very strong preference for the color white among the Asian groups studied, particularly the Japanese subjects. Within Saito's study, white was found to be positively associated with the feelings of being clean, pure, harmonious, refreshing, beautiful, clear, gentle, and natural. Saito further explained the possible influence of ancient Japanese religion and mythology on the Japanese preference for white.
A small number of Saito's subjects in Taipei expressed a negative feeling toward white, indicating an association with the image of death. In the present study, the findings revealed that the color white was seen to be generally positive and was associated with purity and being simple and clean.
Some respondents associated white with innocence and peace and said it reminded them of a bride or dove. Another said the color white reminded her of snow.
However, it also evoked negative emotions and was associated with emptiness and void. Some associated white with loneliness and boredom because it reminded them of insane asylum. Cross-cultural research could shed light on these issues by determining how cultural differences vary in color-emotion associations.
In addition to cross-cultural studies and investigation to reasons for color associations, future work might also utilize rating scales for color associations, such as "beautiful-ugly", "warm-cold", etc.
Also, in our study, all colors were presented on a neutral background. Future work might involve investigation of color-emotion associations in which colors are presented on different colored backgrounds.
Emotions are listed in alphabetical order. The cell numbers indicate frequencies; the percentages are listed in parentheses. A cross-cultural study of the affective meaning of color.
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