What Is the Connection between pH and Concentration?
Calculating pH; Calculating hydronium ion concentration from pH; Calculating hydroxide ion concentration from pOH; The relationship between pH and pOH. Information on pH and equilibrium for An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop. The example below illustrates this relationship between the concentrations. Perhaps the most important connection between pH and concentration is that pH is by its very nature a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions in a given.
As such, the two concepts necessarily go hand in hand. Chemists and researchers typically calculate the two together. Understanding pH Generally Broadly speaking, pH is a measurement of the concentration of hydrogen ions in any given solution. What is established, though, is the universal importance of pH; as a measurement it is used in all sorts of chemical and mathematical applications, and is important to a wide variety of processes, from food manufacturing to drug creation.
Ad On a Logarithmic Scale All solutions have a specific pH and are made with a solventusually water, and a solute, which dissolves easily in the chosen solvent. Using a logarithmic scale for pH helps keep the scale small while retaining the valuable information the pH scale represents.
One connection between pH and the concentration of hydrogen ions is that together they allow the use of a logarithmic scale. The lower the pH the more concentrated the hydrogen ions, because pH measures the negative log of hydrogen ion concentration, meaning 0. Another way of thinking about this is that pH and concentration become linearly connected by a factor of ten and the pH changes by a factor of one when hydrogen ion concentration changes by a factor of ten.
How does pH relate to concentration?
The normal relationship is said to be exponential and this connection helps avoid tedious equations involving higher levels of mathematics. This automatically changes the curved relationship to a linear relationship where simple math applies.
The straight line can make predictions, relationships between different concentrations, and calculations easy to visualize. Calculation Similarities Another connection between pH and concentration is that both are calculated in a similar way. Nagwa Ibrahim Mohammed Ibrahim. International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis.
October 2, ; Accepted: November 7, ; Published: November 29, Abstract: The contamination of groundwater has major complications on the environment and can pose serious threat to agriculture and human health. However metals like magnesium, calcium, iron and manganese are necessary to sustain the vital plants function in trace amounts. Therefore World Health Organization has approved the treatment of water if concentrations of iron is higher than 0.
Thirty five samples were collected from different 10 wells Groundwater in Zulfi Town, two samples from treated water. Water from the ground water is used extensively in Zulfi province for urban and rural water supply, agriculture, and industry. In all well the concentrations of iron was found to be higher than 0.
So we expect iron bacteria growth. Materials and Methods 2. Collection of Samples 2.
Measurement of pH 2. Measurement of Iron 3. Iron Bacteria Growth 5. Conclusions Recommendations References 1. Introduction Groundwater is the main resource of drinking water in arid areas, which is also used in domestic consumption and irrigation. Adee —,Kim, K-H. Ground water is an important source of drinking water for humankind. The water pollution by heavy metals has become a question of considerable public and scientific concern in the light of the evidence of their toxicity to human health and biological systems Anazawa et al.
Heavy metals receive particular concern considering their strong toxicity even at low concentrations Marcovecchio et al. They exist in water in colloidal, particulate and dissolved phases Adepoju - Bello et al. Some of the metals are essential to sustain life-calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium must be present for normal body functions. Also, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum and zinc are needed at low levels as catalyst for enzyme activities Adepoju-Bello et al.
Iron is metallic element present in many types of rock. Iron has the symbol "Fe" iron is commonly found in water and are essential elements required in small amounts by all living organisms. Concentrations of iron in groundwater are often higher than those measured in surface waters.
The pH scale goes from 0 to 14 with 7 being neutral. Anything below 7 is considered acidic and anything above 7 is considered alkaline or basic.
What Is the Connection between pH and Concentration?
Higher pH prevents the corrosion and contamination from pipes Ahmad, M. The World Health Organization has approved the treatment of water if concentrations of iron is higher than 0. Fawazy G et al. Therefore, the water could leach metal ions such as iron, manganese, copper, lead, and zinc Brian Oram, PG http: When groundwater is pumped up to the surface it gets into contact with air O2 which enters the solutions and starts the oxidation process that releases carbon dioxide CO2 from the groundwater to the atmosphere.
For Insoluble the water can appear rusty or yellowish in color. This happens because the iron is being oxidized by the atmosphere and forming ferric hydroxide. For Soluble iron in the water will appear clearly, but by time the iron will oxidize into particulate. Organic iron is combined with an acid, which can be clear, but usually has a yellowish-to-red color. Colloidal iron refers to very fine iron particles held in solution so the water appears discolored. Iron bacteria utilize iron as a nutrient source and can present significant clogging problems.
pH and Equilibrium
Iron bacteria can grow enough to block pipes and clog well screens within weeks. Iron bacteria growth is very dependent upon the pH level, occurring over a range of 5. These bacteria are not posing any health threat, but they can cause red brown slime in toilet tanks and can cause clogging of water systems.
Wilson et al There is another problem associated with iron and manganese in water is iron and manganese bacteria. Iron bacteria and Sulphur bacteria are small living organisms that naturally occur in soil, surface water, and groundwater.
The Sources of Iron bacteria is naturally occurring organisms in the environment. Iron bacteria combine iron or manganesepresent in water, with oxygen. The iron bacteria may form large masses of an orangey-brown slime. There are two categories of sulphur bacteria: Sulphur-oxidizing bacteria chemically change sulphide present in drinking water into sulphate.
Sulphur-reducing bacteria live in oxygen-deficient environments. They break down sulphur compounds present in water, producing hydrogen sulphide gas in the process. Of the two types, sulphur-reducing bacteria are the more common.