KEYWORDS: aggression, dopamine, GABA, humans, mice, prefrontal cortex, . The relationship between serotonin and aggression is extremely complex. Our results suggest that dopamine may directly inhibit GABAA further revealing a difference between these cell types (Ade et al., ). Dopamine is a neurotransmitter (or hormone) a chemical messenger that affects brain Direct link between GABA activation and dopamine suppression.
Why would a cell release dopamine and GABA at the same time?
Second the canonical dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra turn out to release GABA as well. InTritsch et al. The authors did extensive control experiments to make sure that they were indeed seeing GABA release from dopaminergic axons.
They used carbon fiber amperometry to measure dopamine, and confirmed that dopamine was being released, and they blocked GABA receptors to make sure that it was GABA that was causing the inhibitory response.
They did this by adding TTX, a sodium channel blocker, to prevent action potentials.
The Cellular Scale: Dopamine and GABA working together
In this condition, they could still evoke neurotransmitter release by light-based activation of these axons, confirming that these neurons directly release both dopamine and GABA. So what's with this mash up? Neither paper speculates much on why GABA and dopamine might be co-released, or what the consequences of such a partnership might be. Electrophysiological and morphological characteristics and synaptic connectivity of tyrosine hydroxylase-expressing neurons in adult mouse striatum.
The Journal of neuroscience: These neurons reach and dump serotonin onto almost the entire brain, as well as the spinal cord. Serotonin plays a role in many brain processes, including body temperature regulation, sleep, mood, appetite, and pain.
The interaction between GABA and dopamine: implications for schizophrenia.
Problems with the serotonin pathway are linked to obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety disorders, and depression. Most prescription drugs used to treat depression today work by increasing serotonin levels in the brain. Since GABA is inhibitory and glutamate is excitatory, both neurotransmitters work together to control many processes, including the brain's overall level of excitation. Many of the drugs of abuse change the balance of glutamate or GABA, exerting tranquilizing or stimulating effects on the brain.
Drugs that increase GABA or decrease glutamate are depressants.
Beyond the Reward Pathway
Those that decrease GABA or increase glutamate are tranquilizers or stimulants. Alcohol decreases glutamate activity. PCP, or "angel dust," increases glutamate activity.
- The interaction between GABA and dopamine: implications for schizophrenia.
Caffeine increases glutamate activity and inhibits GABA release. Alcohol increases GABA activity. Tranquilizers increase GABA activity.2-Minute Neuroscience: GABA
GABA and glutamate regulate action potential traffic.