Memory Recall/Retrieval - Memory Processes - The Human Memory
Three processes are involved in memory: encoding, storage, and retrieval. To describe the process of storage, many psychologists use the three-stage model. Get an answer for 'Distinguish between the memory process of encoding,storage and retrieval. Apply these processes to short-term and long-term memory. Recall or retrieval of memory refers to the subsequent re-accessing of events or to the original, though - otherwise we would not know the difference between the Because of the way memories are encoded and stored, memory recall is.
Imagine a patient being discharged from hospital whose treatment involved taking various pills at various times, changing their dressing and doing exercises.
If the doctor gives these instructions in the order which they must be carried out throughout the day i. Criticisms of Memory Experiments A large part of the research on memory is based on experiments conducted in laboratories.
Memory, Encoding Storage and Retrieval | Simply Psychology
Those who take part in the experiments - the participants - are asked to perform tasks such as recalling lists of words and numbers. Both the setting - the laboratory - and the tasks are a long way from everyday life. In many cases, the setting is artificial and the tasks fairly meaningless.
Psychologists use the term ecological validity to refer to the extent to which the findings of research studies can be generalized to other settings. An experiment has high ecological validity if its findings can be generalized, that is applied or extended, to settings outside the laboratory.
It is often assumed that if an experiment is realistic or true-to-life, then there is a greater likelihood that its findings can be generalized. If it is not realistic if the laboratory setting and the tasks are artificial then there is less likelihood that the findings can be generalized.
In this case, the experiment will have low ecological validity. Many experiments designed to investigate memory have been criticized for having low ecological validity. First, the laboratory is an artificial situation. People are removed from their normal social settings and asked to take part in a psychological experiment.
They are directed by an 'experimenter' and may be placed in the company of complete strangers. For many people, this is a brand new experience, far removed from their everyday lives. Will this setting affect their actions, will they behave normally? Often, the tasks participants are asked to perform can appear artificial and meaningless. Few, if any, people would attempt to memorize and recall a list of unconnected words in their daily lives.
And it is not clear how tasks such as this relate to the use of memory in everyday life. In most cases, this line of reasoning is true; nevertheless, recognition tests do not provide perfect indexes of what is stored in memory. For example, suppose you had the task of recognizing the surnames of famous authors. At first, you might think that being given the actual last name would always be the best cue. However, research has shown this not necessarily to be true Muter, When given names such as Tolstoy, Shaw, Shakespeare, and Lee, subjects might well say that Tolstoy and Shakespeare are famous authors, whereas Shaw and Lee are not.
But, when given a cued recall test using first names, people often recall items produce them that they had failed to recognize before. This strange fact—that recall can sometimes lead to better performance than recognition—can be explained by the encoding specificity principle.
The point is, the cues that work best to evoke retrieval are those that recreate the event or name to be remembered, whereas sometimes even the target itself, such as Shaw in the above example, is not the best cue. Which cue will be most effective depends on how the information has been encoded.
Whenever we think about our past, we engage in the act of retrieval.
Memory Process - encoding, storage, and retrieval
We usually think that retrieval is an objective act because we tend to imagine that retrieving a memory is like pulling a book from a shelf, and after we are done with it, we return the book to the shelf just as it was. However, research shows this assumption to be false; far from being a static repository of data, the memory is constantly changing.
In fact, every time we retrieve a memory, it is altered. Thus the act of retrieval can be a double-edged sword—strengthening the memory just retrieved usually by a large amount but harming related information though this effect is often relatively small.
Memory (Encoding, Storage, Retrieval)
As discussed earlier, retrieval of distant memories is reconstructive. We weave the concrete bits and pieces of events in with assumptions and preferences to form a coherent story Bartlett, For example, if during your 10th birthday, your dog got to your cake before you did, you would likely tell that story for years afterward.
Say, then, in later years you misremember where the dog actually found the cake, but repeat that error over and over during subsequent retellings of the story. Over time, that inaccuracy would become a basic fact of the event in your mind. Just as retrieval practice repetition enhances accurate memories, so will it strengthen errors or false memories McDermott, Sometimes memories can even be manufactured just from hearing a vivid story. Consider the following episode, recounted by Jean Piaget, the famous developmental psychologist, from his childhood: One of my first memories would date, if it were true, from my second year.
I can still see, most clearly, the following scene, in which I believed until I was about I was sitting in my pram. I was held in by the strap fastened round me while my nurse bravely tried to stand between me and the thief. She received various scratches, and I can still vaguely see those on her face.
When I was about 15, my parents received a letter from my former nurse saying that she had been converted to the Salvation Army. She wanted to confess her past faults, and in particular to return the watch she had been given as a reward on this occasion.
She had made up the whole story, faking the scratches. I therefore must have heard, as a child, this story, which my parents believed, and projected it into the past in the form of a visual memory. Many real memories are doubtless of the same order.
He heard the tale told repeatedly, and doubtless told it and thought about it himself. Putting It All Together: Improving Your Memory A central theme of this module has been the importance of the encoding and retrieval processes, and their interaction.
But how do we do this? Keep in mind the two critical principles we have discussed: These two conditions are critical in maximizing cue effectiveness Nairne, So, how can these principles be adapted for use in many situations? Although it was not obvious, he applied these same general memory principles, but in a more deliberate way.
In a typical case, the person learns a set of cues and then applies these cues to learn and remember information. It would probably take you less than 10 minutes to learn this list and practice recalling it several times remember to use retrieval practice! In fact, this mnemonic device is called the peg word technique.
If you then needed to remember some discrete items—say a grocery list, or points you wanted to make in a speech—this method would let you do so in a very precise yet flexible way. Suppose you had to remember bread, peanut butter, bananas, lettuce, and so on. The way to use the method is to form a vivid image of what you want to remember and imagine it interacting with your peg words as many as you need. For example, for these items, you might imagine a large gun the first peg word shooting a loaf of bread, then a jar of peanut butter inside a shoe, then large bunches of bananas hanging from a tree, then a door slamming on a head of lettuce with leaves flying everywhere.
The idea is to provide good, distinctive cues the weirder the better! If you do this, then retrieving it later is relatively easy. You know your cues perfectly one is gun, etc. Example of a mneumonic system created by a student to study cranial nerves.
One word of warning, though, is that the items to be remembered need to be presented relatively slowly at first, until you have practice associating each with its cue word. People get faster with time. This is because the peg words provide direct access to the memorized items, regardless of order.
How did Simon Reinhard remember those digits? Essentially he has a much more complex system based on these same principles. For example, imagine mentally walking through the home where you grew up and identifying as many distinct areas and objects as possible.
Simon has hundreds of such memory palaces that he uses. Next, for remembering digits, he has memorized a set of 10, images. Every four-digit number for him immediately brings forth a mental image. So, for example, might recall Michael Jackson. When Simon hears all the numbers coming at him, he places an image for every four digits into locations in his memory palace.
He can do this at an incredibly rapid rate, faster than 4 digits per 4 seconds when they are flashed visually, as in the demonstration at the beginning of the module. As noted, his record is digits, recalled in exact order. Simon was able to do this in Again, he uses his memory palaces, and he encodes groups of cards as single images.
Many books exist on how to improve memory using mnemonic devices, but all involve forming distinctive encoding operations and then having an infallible set of memory cues. We should add that to develop and use these memory systems beyond the basic peg system outlined above takes a great amount of time and concentration. The World Memory Championships are held every year and the records keep improving.
However, for most common purposes, just keep in mind that to remember well you need to encode information in a distinctive way and to have good cues for retrieval.
You can adapt a system that will meet most any purpose. The science of successful learning. This is a student-made video illustrating this phenomenon of altered memory. It was one of the winning entries in the Noba Student Video Award. This is a student-made video illustrating this phenomenon of autobiographical memory.
Another student-made video exploring the misinformation effect. Also an award winner from Simon Reinhard breaking the world record in speedcards. Retrieval Practice, a website with research, resources, and tips for both educators and learners around the memory-strengthening skill of retrieval practice.
Develop your own journey, which contains 20 places, in order, that you know well. One example might be: Be sure to use a set of places that you know well and that have a natural order to them e. Now you are more than halfway toward being able to memorize a set of 20 nouns, in order, rather quickly. As an optional second step, have a friend make a list of 20 such nouns and read them to you, slowly e. Use the method to attempt to remember the 20 items.
Recall a recent argument or misunderstanding you have had about memory e. In light of what you have just learned about memory, how do you think about it?
Is it possible that the disagreement can be understood by one of you making a pragmatic inference? Consolidation The process occurring after encoding that is believed to stabilize memory traces. Cue overload principle The principle stating that the more memories that are associated to a particular retrieval cue, the less effective the cue will be in prompting retrieval of any one memory.
Distinctiveness The principle that unusual events in a context of similar events will be recalled and recognized better than uniform nondistinctive events. Encoding The initial experience of perceiving and learning events. Encoding specificity principle The hypothesis that a retrieval cue will be effective to the extent that information encoded from the cue overlaps or matches information in the engram or memory trace.
Engrams A term indicating the change in the nervous system representing an event; also, memory trace. Episodic memory Memory for events in a particular time and place. Flashbulb memory Vivid personal memories of receiving the news of some momentous and usually emotional event. Memory traces A term indicating the change in the nervous system representing an event. Misinformation effect When erroneous information occurring after an event is remembered as having been part of the original event.
Mnemonic devices A strategy for remembering large amounts of information, usually involving imaging events occurring on a journey or with some other set of memorized cues. Recoding The ubiquitous process during learning of taking information in one form and converting it to another form, usually one more easily remembered.
Retrieval The process of accessing stored information. Retroactive interference The phenomenon whereby events that occur after some particular event of interest will usually cause forgetting of the original event.
Semantic memory The more or less permanent store of knowledge that people have. Remembering can cause forgetting: Retrieval dynamics in long-term memory. A study in experimental and social psychology. Mnemonic elaboration in multilist learning. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11, — Memory for the pragmatic implications of sentences. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 20, A framework for memory research. Rehearsing the information can help keep it in short-term memory longer.
Short-term memory has a limited capacity.
It is believed to hold about seven pieces of information, plus or minus two pieces. Chunking is a method that can help increase the capacity of short-term memory.
Chunking involves grouping small bits of information into larger chunks. Long-Term Memory Long-term memory has an almost an unlimited storage capacity. Information that makes it into long-term memory can remain there for your entire life. However, even though it is there you may not always be able to remember the information, because you may not be able to retrieve it.
The way we store information in long-term memory affects the way we retrieve it. Retrieval Retrieval is the process of recalling stored information from memory. Basically, it is getting information out of your long-term memory and returning it to your conscious mind. There are two main methods of retrieving memories: Recognition Recognition Recognition is the association of something with something previously experienced.