Relationship between Church and State
In a semi-biographical work Eusebius uses the story of Constantine to defend and preach the benefits of Christianity. His association of. This praise-filled biography came from the hand of Eusebius, bishop of . He gave his sons an orthodox Christian education, and his relationship with his. Lactantius and Eusebius wrote true accounts of what Constantine claimed what .. relationship of Constantine and Licinius was the Edict of Milan written in The two Augusti compromised between their views and Rome adopted an.
Eusebius and his Praise of Constantine Published on: Often, at best, Christians were tolerated in the empire but hardly accepted and at worst they were heavily persecuted.
During its growth Christianity was often an underground religion and was often not exercised or practiced in a public way.
To say one was a Christian often meant social ostracism and more often than not it was extreme persecution. This was especially true during the violent rule of Diocletian. However, Diocletian was a strict believer in the Roman Gods and he viewed Christianity as a threat to the purity of Roman life and therefore the Roman political system when Galerius led him to believe that a series of misfortunes could be blamed on the Christians.
Under Diocletian rule, Christians suffered The Great Persecution, one of the bloodiest and most aggressive campaigns against Christianity. Churches and scripture were burned, Church property was claimed by the government, and Christians that held high offices were often arrested if they refused to offer sacrifices to the Roman Gods or to the Emperor.
When Galerius came into power, already biased against Christians, the persecution that started under Diocletian continued. Following Galerius came Constantine. However, Athanasius of Alexandria became a more powerful opponent and inhe was summoned before a synod in Caesarea which he refused to attend. In the following year, he was again summoned before a synod in Tyre at which Eusebius of Caesarea presided. Athanasius, foreseeing the result, went to Constantinople to bring his cause before the Emperor.History Of The Church by Eusebius Philosophy & Martyrdom 3
Constantine called the bishops to his court, among them Eusebius. Athanasius was condemned and exiled at the end of Eusebius remained in the Emperor's favour throughout this time and more than once was exonerated with the explicit approval of the Emperor Constantine. After the Emperor's death c. However, there is primary text evidence from a council held in Antioch that by the yearhis successor Acacius had already filled the seat as Bishop.
Socrates and Sozomen write about Eusebius' death, and place it just before Constantine's son Constantine II died, which was in early They also say that it was after the second banishment of Athanasius, which began in mid This means that his death occurred some time between the second half of and early Although posterity suspected him of ArianismEusebius had made himself indispensable by his method of authorship; his comprehensive and careful excerpts from original sources saved his successors the painstaking labor of original research.
Hence, much has been preserved, quoted by Eusebius, which otherwise would have been lost. The literary productions of Eusebius reflect on the whole the course of his life. At first, he occupied himself with works on Biblical criticism under the influence of Pamphilus and probably of Dorotheus of Tyre of the School of Antioch. Afterward, the persecutions under Diocletian and Galerius directed his attention to the martyrs of his own time and the past, and this led him to the history of the whole Church and finally to the history of the world, which, to him, was only a preparation for ecclesiastical history.
Then followed the time of the Arian controversies, and dogmatic questions came into the foreground.
Eusebius - Wikipedia
Christianity at last found recognition by the State; and this brought new problems—apologies of a different sort had to be prepared. Lastly, Eusebius wrote eulogies in praise of Constantine.
To all this activity must be added numerous writings of a miscellaneous nature, addresses, letters, and the like, and exegetical works that extended over the whole of his life and that include both commentaries and treatises on Biblical archaeology. It sits uneasily between the ancient genres of geography and lexicography, taking elements from both but a member of neither. Of the approximate Biblical and N. Eusebius organizes his entries into separate categories according to their first letters.
The entries for Joshua under Taufor example, read as follows: Under each letter, the entries are organized first by the book they are found in, and then by their place in that book. In almost all of the entries in his geographical opus, Eusebius brings down the respective distances in Roman " milestones " semeia from major points of reference, such as from JerusalemBeit Gubrin EleutheropolisHebronPtolemaisCaesareaetc.
In Eusebius' Onomasticon, distances between each "milestone" were usually 1, meters—1, meters, although the standard Roman mile was 1, meters. Since most villages in the Onomasticon are far removed from Roman-built roads, scholars have concluded that Eusebius did not glean the geographical information from maps based on a milestone survey, but rather collected the information from some other source.
The work also describes traditional religious practices at the oak of Mamre as though they were still happening, while they are known to have been suppressed soon afterwhen a church was built on the site. Biblical text criticism[ edit ] Eusebius's canon tables were often included in Early Medieval Gospel books Pamphilus and Eusebius occupied themselves with the textual criticism of the Septuagint text of the Old Testament and especially of the New Testament.
An edition of the Septuagint seems to have been already prepared by Origenwhich, according to Jeromewas revised and circulated by Eusebius and Pamphilus. For an easier survey of the material of the four Evangelists, Eusebius divided his edition of the New Testament into paragraphs and provided it with a synoptical table so that it might be easier to find the pericopes that belong together.
These canon tables or "Eusebian canons" remained in use throughout the Middle Ages, and illuminated manuscript versions are important for the study of early medieval art, as they are the most elaborately decorated pages of many Gospel books.
Eusebius detailed in Epistula ad Carpianum how to use his canons. The tables of the second part have been completely preserved in a Latin translation by Jerome, and both parts are still extant in an Armenian translation. The loss of the Greek originals has given an Armenian translation a special importance; thus, the first part of Eusebius' Chronicle, of which only a few fragments exist in the Greek, has been preserved entirely in Armenianthough with lacunae. The Chronicle as preserved extends to the year Church History Eusebius In his Church History or Ecclesiastical History, Eusebius wrote the first surviving history of the Christian Church as a chronologically-ordered account, based on earlier sources, complete from the period of the Apostles to his own epoch.
Included were the bishops and other teachers of the Church, Christian relations with the Jews and those deemed heretical, and the Christian martyrs through As the historian Socrates Scholasticus said, at the opening of his history which was designed as a continuation of Eusebius, "Also in writing the life of Constantine, this same author has but slightly treated of matters regarding Ariusbeing more intent on the rhetorical finish of his composition and the praises of the emperor, than on an accurate statement of facts.
Some scholars have questioned the Eusebian authorship of this work. Minor historical works[ edit ] Before he compiled his church history, Eusebius edited a collection of martyrdoms of the earlier period and a biography of Pamphilus. The martyrology has not survived as a whole, but it has been preserved almost completely in parts. Of the life of Pamphilus, only a fragment survives. A work on the martyrs of Palestine in the time of Diocletian was composed after ; numerous fragments are scattered in legendaries which have yet to be collected.
The life of Constantine was compiled after the death of the emperor and the election of his sons as Augusti It is more a rhetorical eulogy on the emperor than a history but is of great value on account of numerous documents incorporated in it.
Apologetic and dogmatic works[ edit ] To the class of apologetic and dogmatic works belong: The Apology for Origenthe first five books of which, according to the definite statement of Photius, were written by Pamphilus in prison, with the assistance of Eusebius. Eusebius added the sixth book after the death of Pamphilus. We possess only a Latin translation of the first book, made by Rufinus ; A treatise against Hierocles a Roman governorin which Eusebius combated the former's glorification of Apollonius of Tyana in a work entitled A Truth-loving Discourse Greek: Philalethes logos ; in spite of manuscript attribution to Eusebius, however, it has been argued by Thomas Hagg  and more recently, Aaron Johnson  that this treatise " Against Hierocles " was written by someone other than Eusebius of Caesarea.
Praeparatio evangelica Preparation for the Gospelcommonly known by its Latin title, which attempts to prove the excellence of Christianity over every pagan religion and philosophy. The Praeparatio consists of fifteen books which have been completely preserved. Eusebius considered it an introduction to Christianity for pagans.
But its value for many later readers is more because Eusebius studded this work with so many lively fragments from historians and philosophers which are nowhere else preserved.
Constantine and Eusebius
Here alone is preserved a summary of the writings of the Phoenician priest Sanchuniathon of which the accuracy has been shown by the mythological accounts found on the Ugaritic tables, here alone is the account from Diodorus Siculus 's sixth book of Euhemerus ' wondrous voyage to the island of Panchaea where Euhemerus purports to have found his true history of the gods, and here almost alone is preserved writings of the neo-Platonist philosopher Atticus along with so much else.
Demonstratio evangelica Proof of the Gospel is closely connected to the Praeparatio and comprised originally twenty books of which ten have been completely preserved as well as a fragment of the fifteenth. Here Eusebius treats of the person of Jesus Christ.
The work was probably finished before ; Another work which originated in the time of the persecution, entitled Prophetic Extracts Eclogae propheticae. It discusses in four books the Messianic texts of Scripture.
The work is merely the surviving portion books 6—9 of the General elementary introduction to the Christian faith, now lost. The fragments given as the Commentary on Luke in the PG have been claimed to derive from the missing tenth book of the General Elementary Introduction see D. Wallace-Hadrill ; however, Aaron Johnson has argued that they cannot be associated with this work. It treats of the incarnation of the Divine Logosand its contents are in many cases identical with the Demonstratio evangelica.
Only fragments are preserved in Greek, but a complete Syriac translation of the Theophania survives in an early 5th-century manuscript.
Samuel Lee, the editor and translator of the Syriac Theophania thought that the work must have been written "after the general peace restored to the Church by Constantine, and before either the 'Praeparatio,' or the 'Demonstratio Evengelica,' was written. Others have suggested a date as late as A number of writings, belonging in this category, have been entirely lost. Exegetical and miscellaneous works[ edit ] All of the exegetical works of Eusebius have suffered damage in transmission.
The majority of them are known to us only from long portions quoted in Byzantine catena-commentaries. However these portions are very extensive. An enormous Commentary on the Psalms. A commentary on Isaiahdiscovered more or less complete in a manuscript in Florence early in the 20th century and published 50 years later. Small fragments of commentaries on Romans and 1 Corinthians.
Eusebius also wrote a work Quaestiones ad Stephanum et Marinum, "On the Differences of the Gospels" including solutions. This was written for the purpose of harmonizing the contradictions in the reports of the different Evangelists.
This work was recently translated into the English language by David J. Miller and Adam C. Gospel Problems and Solutions. A work on the Greek equivalents of Hebrew Gentilic nouns; A description of old Judea with an account of the loss of the ten tribes; A plan of Jerusalem and the Temple of Solomon. These three treatises have been lost. The addresses and sermons of Eusebius are mostly lost, but some have been preserved, e. Most of Eusebius' letters are lost.
His letters to Carpianus and Flacillus exist complete. Fragments of a letter to the empress Constantia also exists. Doctrine[ edit ] Eusebius is fairly unusual in his preteristor fulfilled eschatological view. Now there were among the Hebrews three outstanding offices of dignity, which made the nation famous, firstly the kingship, secondly that of prophet, and lastly the high priesthood. The prophecies said that the abolition and complete destruction of all these three together would be the sign of the presence of the Christ.
And that the proofs that the times had come, would lie in the ceasing of the Mosaic worship, the desolation of Jerusalem and its Temple, and the subjection of the whole Jewish race to its enemies The holy oracles foretold that all these changes, which had not been made in the days of the prophets of old, would take place at the coming of the Christ, which I will presently shew to have been fulfilled as never before in accordance with the predictions. Like Origen, he started from the fundamental thought of the absolute sovereignty monarchia of God.
God is the cause of all beings. But he is not merely a cause; in him everything good is included, from him all life originates, and he is the source of all virtue. God sent Christ into the world that it may partake of the blessings included in the essence of God. Christ is God and is a ray of the eternal light; but the figure of the ray is so limited by Eusebius that he expressly distinguishes the Son as distinct from Father as a ray is also distinct from its source the sun.