Relationship between high cholesterol and heart attack

Cholesterol and Heart Disease – What’s the Evidence? - Students 4 Best Evidence

relationship between high cholesterol and heart attack

This is how high blood pressure increases the risk of heart attack and The American Heart Association has stated that there is no scientific. Is LDL cholesterol the cause of heart disease—or merely a marker of indiscretion ?. Studies evaluating over 20 million subjects show an association between higher LDL and increased risk of heart disease. For some, that is.

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In general, the UK media provided fairly balanced reporting, presenting both sides of the argument — supporting the findings, but with critical views from other experts.

What kind of research was this? It has long been thought that cholesterol is a key cause of the fatty build-up in arteries atherosclerosis that causes heart disease. However, the researchers say there are contradictions to this view. Recent research has suggested that total cholesterol becomes less of a risk factor for all-cause or cardiovascular mortality the older people get.

Less is known about LDL specifically and that's what this research aimed to look at. A systematic review is the best way of gathering evidence from cohort studies that have looked at the link between an exposure or risk factor and an outcome.

However, the strength of a review's findings is only as good as the studies they include. In cohort studies, it is often difficult to directly attribute an outcome to a specific cause, and there is always the potential that other factors are influencing the outcome. What did the research involve?

The researchers searched one literature database PubMed in December to identify English-language cohort studies that had included a general population sample aged 60 and over.

Studies had to have taken baseline measures of LDL cholesterol and then followed participants up over time, looking at the link with all-cause or cardiovascular mortality. Three authors reviewed potential studies and extracted data. From an initial 2, hits, 19 publications, covering 30 cohorts and including 68, participants, were included. The majority of studies were excluded outright, as they didn't seem to contain anything relevant in the study title or abstract summary.

The other reasons for exclusion were non-English language, participants not being representative of the general population, not measuring LDL cholesterol at baseline, and not giving separate data for older adults or looking at mortality outcomes.

What were the basic results?

No connection between LDL cholesterol levels and heart disease, according to researchers

That is, as LDL cholesterol went down, all-cause mortality went up — higher LDL was apparently linked to lower all-cause mortality. In 14 of these 16, this was said to be a statistically significant link. The remaining 12 cohorts found no link with all-cause mortality. Only nine of the identified cohorts specifically reported cardiovascular mortality.

Seven found no link between LDL cholesterol and cardiovascular mortality. The other two found that those in the lowest fourth quartile of LDL levels actually had the highest cardiovascular mortality. How did the researchers interpret the results?

The researchers concluded that, "High LDL-C is inversely associated with mortality in most people over 60 years".

relationship between high cholesterol and heart attack

They said their finding contradicts the cholesterol hypothesis: They consider that as they found older adults with high LDL live just as long as those with low LDL, this "provides the rationale for a re-evaluation of guidelines recommending pharmacological reduction of LDL-C in the elderly".

However, before accepting this as fact, there are many important limitations to consider — both to the review and the included studies — many of which the review authors themselves acknowledge: There is the potential that many studies relevant to this question may have been missed out. The review searched only a single literature database, excluded studies only available in non-English language, and excluded studies where the title and abstract did not appear to contain information on the link between LDL and mortality in older adults.

For decades, research has indicated that diet and cholesterol play a role in heart health. More recent research suggests that the connection may be more complex than has been thought.

No connection between LDL cholesterol levels and heart disease, according to researchers

The association between cholesterol and heart disease The Dietary Guidelines for Americans specifically limited dietary cholesterol to no more than milligrams per day. It mentions studies and trials that have produced strong evidence that healthy eating patterns that are low in dietary cholesterol can reduce the risk of heart disease in adults.

An eight-week study published in stated that elevated LDL is an established risk factor for heart disease and that dietary fatty acids play a significant role in the development of heart disease. The researchers found that making minor dietary changes in this case, replacing a few regularly eaten foods with better fat-quality alternatives reduced cholesterol and could potentially reduce future risk of heart disease.

Researchers raise questions Newer research questions the role cholesterol plays in the development of heart disease.

Study says there's no link between cholesterol and heart disease - NHS

A systematic review published in found that people over 60 years old who have high LDL cholesterol live as long or longer than people with low LDL.

The researchers suggest reevaluating the guidelines for heart disease prevention in older adults. The team chose studies from only one database and only those published in English.

More research on cholesterol, particularly dietary cholesterol, needs to be done.

relationship between high cholesterol and heart attack

Both of these changes are associated with increased risk of heart disease, according to the American Heart Association. Trans fats also offer no nutritional value. Partially hydrogenated oils PHOs are the main source of trans fat in our diets. Inthe U.

relationship between high cholesterol and heart attack