HRBA Portal - What is the relationship between human rights and development?
The parameters of the overlap between human rights and development can be. Human rights for human development rely on mutual accountability, whereby all actors, creating a research agenda on associations between health and human rights. . London: DFID in association with Coffey International Development. How do human rights relate to the Millennium Development Goals? Human rights and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are complementary.
Gender equality[ edit ] The third MDG is to promote gender equality and empower women. Eliminating gender inequality is supported by international human rights instruments, such as the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. The goal sets women's empowerment as the objective but the related target is narrowly concerned with education.
Gender gaps in access to education have narrowed but inequalities remain in all levels of education, girls face barriers to schooling, particularly in Northern Africa, sub-Saharan Africa and Western Asia.
Access to secondary and university education remains unequal with disparities at universities the most extreme. In Southern Asia, 77 girls per boys are enrolled in tertiary education while in sub-Saharan Africa the gender gap in enrolment has widened from 66 girls per boys in to 61 girls per boys in Poverty is the main cause of unequal access to education with women and girls in many parts of the world forced to spend many hours fetching water and girls often do not attend school because of a lack of adequate sanitation facilities.
- Human Rights and Development
- Human rights and development
Child marriage and violence against girls are also significant barriers to education. Women still enter the labour market on an unequal basis to men, even after accounting for educational background and skills. Women are often relegated to vulnerable forms of employment, with little or no financial security or social benefits. Regarding women's rights and land empowerment, Kerry Rittich  notes that programmes which promote the formal real property rights of women, in place of customary laws or other informal mechanisms, have the potential to both improve and retard women's access to land.
The programmes promoting property rights tend to go together with measures to formalize, commodify, and individualize landholdings, and that these three processes often intensify the dispossession of women who may have had access to land under informal arrangements or customary law.
The promotion of property rights from an economic perspective may well undermine the social rights of women in developing countries. Legal conceptions of property, treat property not as a mere resource but as a set of relations between individuals and groups. This approach may highlight otherwise unforeseen distributive consequences for women, moving from an informal property regime to a formalized and individualized one. Mason and Carlsson  note that, unless gender inequality in land holding is taken into account when implementing land tenure reforms, improved land tenure security may diminish women's land holdings.
A variety of factors can lead to this result, including discriminatory inheritance laws, the application of an androcentric definition of 'the head of household', and inequalities in women's capacity to participate in the market for land.
Costa Rica and Colombia land reforms were undertaken in a way that improved women's ownership of land. Women who own the land they work have greater incentives to raise their labour productivity, and women who earn more income are more likely than men to invest in the household and in their children's education and nutrition stressing the importance of applying a human rights lens such that norms of non-discrimination and equal property rights are required when implementing economic reforms.
Children's rights The fourth MDG is to reduce child mortality. A human rights approach emphasizes the State's obligations regarding the availability of functioning health systems and making sure that all groups can effectively access them by addressing obstacles like discrimination.
The target here is the reduction of two-thirds of the mortality rate of children under five by  comparable to the Right to life. Around 17, fewer children are dying each day, yet 6.
In sub-Saharan Africa, one in ten children dies before the age five. Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia accounted for 5.
The first month, particularly the first 24 hours, are the most dangerous in a child's life. Over the past two decades in Bangladesh UNICEF has supported local efforts training community health-care workers leading to a decline in maternal and child mortality. Infant mortality declined from deaths per 1, live births in to 33 deaths per 1, live births in The development goal is related to Child Labour.
Rights advocates regard child labour as a violation to numerous rights of a child such that it must be eradicated to ensure children's human rights are ends themselves while development economics views child labour as an inter-generational loss of potential income. Children suffer diminished human capital where reductions in health and education affect their future productivity.
Betcherman  demonstrates the important insights that economic analysis can provide in understanding how best to reduce child labour.
Factors contributing to child labour can be seen in terms of incentives that encourage child work, constraints that compel children to work, and decisions that may not be made in the best interests of the children. Other factors must also be considered, direct books, transport and indirect poor quality, loss of household labour costs of education leading parents to regard education as not providing sufficient immediate returns to the household or child.
Elizabeth GibbonsFriedrich Huebler and Edilberto Loaiza consider how, at the level of statistical analysis, the application of the human rights principle of non-discrimination can affect our understanding of child labour. Existing methods of calculating the extent of child labour under report the degree of work done by girls, because the measures exclude household chores. By failing to consider 'female work' within the definition of child labour, the impact of child work on the educational and health attainment of girls is made invisible.
Gibbons, Huebler, and Loaiza also investigate some factors affecting school attendance; labour and household poverty are generally constraints on attendance but a mother's educational attainment correlates positively with school attendance, revealing the inter-generational payoff from investments in girls' education. Household wealth and the level of education of the primary caretaker also have a significant effect on educational attainment In India the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act  has led to the inclusion of a justiciable right to education in relation to children between the ages of 6 and 14 and provides an impetus to government to address critical problems in the provision of education.
The idea of education as a 'fundamental right' focuses local political action and agitation among oppressed communities, who rely on the new constitutional provision as a way of pressing demands on local and regional government.
Maternal health[ edit ] The fifth MDG is to improve maternal health. The target is to reduce by three quarters the maternal mortality ratio and to achieve universal access to reproductive health by  comparable to right to life and health. Complications during pregnancy or childbirth are one of the leading causes of death for adolescent girls, million women worldwide married or in civil union would like to delay or avoid pregnancy, but have no access to family planning.
Maternal mortality is lower in countries where levels of contraceptive use and skilled attendance at birth are high. Education for girls is vital to reducing maternal mortality. The risk of maternal death is 2. Hundreds of nurses have upgraded their knowledge with practical and theoretical training. In India more than two-thirds of maternal deaths occur in impoverished states due to the inability to get medical care in time.
UNICEF and its partners are working to avoid these preventable maternal deaths through innovative schemes such as a conditional cash transfer programme for women who deliver in health facilities.
15. What is the relation between human rights and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)?
Furthermore, UN Women is implementing a joint programme in Central African Republic, Chad, Guinea, Haiti, Mali, Niger and Togo highlighting links between violence against women and maternal health, promoting funding and training midwives and health workers.
Multidrug-resistant TB is a major global challenge and the rate of people accessing treatment is slow. Inreports appeared that malaria parasites in Cambodia and Thailand were resisting artemisinin, the most effective single drug to treat malaria. The countries launched a joint monitoring, prevention and treatment project in seven provinces along their shared border, with support from WHO. In Thailand more than volunteer village malaria health workers were trained to provide free services to test for malaria and directly observe the treatment of patients.
Use of a smart phone to capture data on patients and to monitor treatment has accelerated progress. An electronic malaria information system e-MIS uploaded on the health workers' mobile devices shows malaria volunteers where to find patients, the status of their treatment, the situation and trends. Environmental sustainability[ edit ] The seventh MDG is to ensure environmental sustainability.
A human rights approach to sustainable development emphasizes improving accountability systems, access to information on environmental issues, and the obligations of developed States to assist more vulnerable States, especially those affected by climate change.
There are four targets in this goal 1 To integrate principles of sustainable development into country policies and reverse the loss of environmental resources comparable to a Right to environmental health; 2 to reduce biodiversity loss by achieving a significant reduction in the rate of loss; 3 to halve bythe proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation comparable to the Right to water and sanitation and 4 to achieve, bya significant improvement in the lives of at least million slum dwellers,  comparable to the Right to adequate housing.
Of note a staggering 2. Open defecation is a practice that poses serious health and environmental risks and stopping it is a key factor in the progress of sanitation goals. Today we observe a broadening of the term development to include a distinct micro-level perspective which also takes into account individual well-being. This individual component is closely linked to the recognition of the instrumental role of individual participation and choice for development and underlines that particular attention has to be paid to disadvantaged and most-marginalised groups.
These changing perceptions eventually paved the way for increased attention to the relationship between economic development and democratic governance as well as for an enhanced role for human rights as a means and objective of development.
With regard to the inclusion of human rights in development co-operation two approaches can be noted. From a more traditional perspective, development and human rights are in principle still viewed as two distinct concepts and fields of activity.
In contrast, the so-called human rights-based approach to development HRBA takes the view that the ultimate aim of development can be defined as the fulfilment of all human rights. Such an approach is based on the conviction that human rights and development are closely interrelated and mutually reinforcing and that neither human rights nor development are prerequisites of, or just ingredients of, the other. In essence, a HRBA can be defined as a conceptual and analytical approach to development co-operation, which is based on the standards and principles of human rights and which aims to incorporate these standards and principles in all planning and implementation of development co-operation.
A HRBA however, does not refer to a closed model which can be mechanically applied to any given situation, but it requires, as a starting point, a thorough and in-depth analysis of the status of the implementation of the international human rights obligations of a given country.
With regard to the variety of civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights as well as to differing country situations this is a complex task and the expertise needed has to be drawn from both, best development as well as human rights practice. Accordingly many development agencies are still struggling with the practical implementation of a HRBA in a comprehensive way, which, in addition, also respects the local ownership of the development process.
However, it is also increasingly recognised that a HRBA can contribute in a very relevant way to development analysis and programming. Firstly, it offers a common and universally accepted framework of analysis for both donors and recipients.
Finally, a HRBA has the potential to deepen the best development practices of empowerment and participation as it is based on the recognition of the human rights of the poor to be heard and to take part in the formulation and implementation of development affecting their lives. Democracy is generally connected with terms such as competitive elections, multi-party democracy and the separation of power. Moreover, democracy aims to empower the people in order to ensure that they rule society.
Human rights, on the other hand, aim to empower the individual and to guarantee the minimum necessary conditions for pursuing a distinctively human life. The ICCPR conferred binding legal status on the right of individuals to participate in the processes that constitute the conduct of public affairs, and further strengthened the protection accorded to participatory rights and freedoms.
Since the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of most communist regimes, the issue of democratisation has been prioritised and democracy and human rights are now seen as firmly standing together. As a consequence, in the s, democracy became the theme of a number of international conferences.
UN organs such as the Secretariat, the General Assembly and the former UN Commission on Human Rights and the Human Rights Council have commented on ways to strengthen democracy and several conferences on new or restored democracies have been convened in close co-operation with the UN. The seminar was held in with the aim to facilitate a constructive dialogue on the interaction between democracy, human rights and the rule of law. Free, fair, and periodic multiparty elections are a key component of democracy, the rule of law and the protection of human rights.
They also have an autonomous value as a means of self-realization and recognition of human dignity. Periodic elections are essential to ensure the accountability of representatives for the exercise of the legislative or executive powers vested in them. The conduct of elections should be entrusted to an independent mechanism, as appropriate, one that is free from executive or other interference that could undermine the fairness of elections.
There is no single formula for how to secure democracy. The Commission identified the following components of the rights of democratic governance: Transparency in government activities, probity, responsible public administration on the part of governments, respect for social rights, and freedom of expression and of the press are essential components of the exercise of democracy. The constitutional subordination of all state institutions to the legally constituted civilian authority and respect for the rule of law on the part of all institutions and sectors of society are equally essential to democracy.
Although not yet in force, as of Marchmention should also be made of the African Charter on Democracy, Elections and Governance. From a human rights perspective, democracy appears to play two different roles. On the one hand, democracy is considered the basic guarantor of human rights, on the other we are witnessing the merging of human rights with democracy.
A democratic system of governance is not a panacea for all human rights abuses.
Human rights and development - Wikipedia
Many serious human rights violations occur in democratic countries. Reports and jurisprudence of international human rights supervisory mechanisms prove that rights to freedom of opinion, expression, information, dissent, association and participation on an equal basis, and fair trial have been violated in virtually every country in the world. However, respect for democratic principles is an indispensable condition for protection and promotion of all categories of rights and freedoms.
Introduction Although recognition of some link between human rights and development is relatively well supported, 1 there are ways in which the two persist in parallel and continue to reflect a separate evolution UNDP, The relationship between human rights and development today is arguably defined more by its distinctions and disconnects than by its points of convergence, despite substantial evidence of the potential for mutual reinforcement see, for example, Robinson and Alston This article addresses the interface of human rights and development, focusing especially on the integration of human rights into development although the reverse is alluded to in parts.
It looks at the uneven recognition of human rights in development, particularly those which are directly relevant to or affected by development processes and outcomes. It aims to explore the potential relevance of human rights obligations as an overlooked but potentially worthwhile area to explore: As such, therefore, it sets out the parameters of the legal and policy questions to invite further exploration of the opportunities extant in the legal dimensions of human rights discourse and the potential for their future application in development.
Whatever the view taken of how closely human rights and development can and should be integrated, there can be no doubt that the two overlap substantially and a number of international frameworks such as those discussed in this article have begun to recognize the connections Sano, A premise of this article is that human rights could be integrated more systemically into development policy and practice, for three reasons. While the majority of development policies and frameworks incorporate human rights concerns, many do so only implicitly: This article focuses on human rights as the subjects of binding international legal obligations, and a thorough a review of development policy, suggests that despite some incorporation of human rights in development policies, greater reliance on human rights law might provide one effective way to promote a more systematic, explicit and coherent approach to the integration of human rights in development.
Human rights law offers one way of bridging the divergence between human rights and development, 2 thereby enhancing coherence and human rights accountability, highlighting potential risk and preventing human rights harm.
The Relationship Between Human Rights and Development Convergence and divergence The parameters of the overlap between human rights and development can be described as occurring at three different levels: At a factual or substantive level, one can identify a confluence of human rights and development in the expanding range of functions, activities, and policies of development agencies and international financial institutions IFIs which overlap with the material provisions of human rights treaties, particularly those of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights ICESCR but also those of the European Social Charterthe American Convention on Human Rightsthe Protocol of San Salvadorthe African Charter of Human and Peoples' Rightsand the European Union EU Charter of Fundamental Rights Development projects and programmes now cover the gamut of social and human development, much of which bear a direct relationship to core economic and social rights, and connect to a number of civil and political rights.
Development institutions conduct a broad range of operations in the fields of health, education, labour and social security, children and youth, and food. They increasingly promote governance programs, anti-corruption strategies, as well as justice reform and rule of law activities. Such activities may not be assumed to reflect or promote the realization of human rights, since few reference or mainstream human rights in their designs and objectives.
Moreover, such activities will typically not address any impact on human rights — assessing whether they in fact support human rights or result in human rights harm. But the convergence occurs also in less fortuitous ways — there is a documented overlap between human rights and development evident in the principles that are now prominent in the mainstream of development policy. Principles like participation and consultation, 4 inclusion, cohesion, good governance, accountability and equality or equity, are well established in development discourse, but they also constitute the tenets of a rights-based approach to development with roots in human rights philosophy or conventions.
Equality provides a vivid example. Equality may also be transposed more implicitly through activities that foster inclusive development.
The convergence around principle remains a limited one, which, in this example, neglects structural or historical discrimination, and a more holistic and contextualized understanding of the factors that cause inequalities. It lacks the normative and intrinsic justification of equality founded in human rights law, and the concrete, enforceable standards it entails. Crucially, equity does not entail duties, while equality as a right generates obligations.
A stronger integration of equality into development, including through the relevant legal standards or through the guidance of interpretations of competent treaty monitoring bodies, might strengthen development through fostering specificity, technical parameters and a solid normative foundation.
At the level of principle therefore, a concerted effort exists to integrate human rights into development policy and practice, which has enriched development discourse and improved development processes and outcomes through securing greater participation, consultation, and equity. However, the source of those principles, and their specific ramifications and interpretation are left to the discretion of institutions, so that their normative strength is left undetermined.