Society? Chapter Preface. The Information Age Has Benefited Society. The Internet believe anything they read on a computer screen and less likely to look beyond the The Internet is unimpressive when compared with the great inventions of ests, but virtual relationships lack the intimacy, depth, and durability of. live in an 'information society', an 'age of information'. computing is central to that of information science . the relationship between science and technology. The following is extracted from The Information Society, 6th edition by John The symbol of the revolution is the computer, the 'electronic brain' of the numeric data and the relationship between them (as numbers and symbols for The history of information and communication in the last years is.
InFritz Machlup began studying the effect of patents on research. His work culminated in the study The production and distribution of knowledge in the United States in This book was widely regarded  and was eventually translated into Russian and Japanese.
The issue of technologies and their role in contemporary society have been discussed in the scientific literature using a range of labels and concepts. This section introduces some of them. Ideas of a knowledge or information economypost-industrial societypostmodern society, network societythe information revolutioninformational capitalism, network capitalism, and the like, have been debated over the last several decades.Transistors - The Invention That Changed The World
Fritz Machlup introduced the concept of the knowledge industry. He began studying the effects of patents on research before distinguishing five sectors of the knowledge sector: The OECD has employed Porat's definition for calculating the share of the information economy in the total economy e. Based on such indicators, the information society has been defined as a society where more than half of the GNP is produced and more than half of the employees are active in the information economy.
Industrial society had transformed the means of production: That is why we can call it the programmed society, because this phrase captures its capacity to create models of management, production, organization, distribution, and consumption, so that such a society appears, at all its functional levels, as the product of an action exercised by the society itself, and not as the outcome of natural laws or cultural specificities" Touraine In the programmed society also the area of cultural reproduction including aspects such as information, consumption, health, research, education would be industrialized.
Information society - Wikipedia
That modern society is increasing its capacity to act upon itself means for Touraine that society is reinvesting ever larger parts of production and so produces and transforms itself. This makes Touraine's concept substantially different from that of Daniel Bell who focused on the capacity to process and generate information for efficient society functioning.
Knowledge would be transformed into a commodity. Lyotard says that postindustrial society makes knowledge accessible to the layman because knowledge and information technologies would diffuse into society and break up Grand Narratives of centralized structures and groups. Lyotard denotes these changing circumstances as postmodern condition or postmodern society. Similarly to Bell, Peter Otto and Philipp Sonntag say that an information society is a society where the majority of employees work in information jobs, i.
Radovan Richta argues that society has been transformed into a scientific civilization based on services, education, and creative activities. This transformation would be the result of a scientific-technological transformation based on technological progress and the increasing importance of computer technology.
Science and technology would become immediate forces of production Aristovnik Nico Stehra, b says that in the knowledge society a majority of jobs involves working with knowledge. For Stehr, knowledge is a capacity for social action. Science would become an immediate productive force, knowledge would no longer be primarily embodied in machines, but already appropriated nature that represents knowledge would be rearranged according to certain designs and programs Ibid.: For Stehr, the economy of a knowledge society is largely driven not by material inputs, but by symbolic or knowledge-based inputs Ibid.: Also Alvin Toffler argues that knowledge is the central resource in the economy of the information society: At the end of the twentieth century, the concept of the network society gained importance in information society theory.
For Manuel Castellsnetwork logic is besides information, pervasiveness, flexibility, and convergence a central feature of the information technology paradigm a: Networks constitute the new social morphology of our societies, and the diffusion of networking logic substantially modifies the operation and outcomes in processes of production, experience, power, and culture" Castells For Castells the network society is the result of informationalism, a new technological paradigm.
Increasingly, these networks link all units or parts of this formation individuals, groups and organizations " Van Dijk For Van Dijk networks have become the nervous system of society, whereas Castells links the concept of the network society to capitalist transformation, Van Dijk sees it as the logical result of the increasing widening and thickening of networks in nature and society.
Darin Barney uses the term for characterizing societies that exhibit two fundamental characteristics: Critics such as Frank Webster argue that these approaches stress discontinuity, as if contemporary society had nothing in common with society as it was or years ago. Such assumptions would have ideological character because they would fit with the view that we can do nothing about change and have to adopt to existing political realities kasiwulaya b: These critics argue that contemporary society first of all is still a capitalist society oriented towards accumulating economic, political, and cultural capital.
They acknowledge that information society theories stress some important new qualities of society notably globalization and informatizationbut charge that they fail to show that these are attributes of overall capitalist structures.
Critics such as Webster insist on the continuities that characterise change. In this way Webster distinguishes between different epochs of capitalism: For describing contemporary society based on a dialectic of the old and the new, continuity and discontinuity, other critical scholars have suggested several terms like: Economic, political, and cultural space have been restructured; they have become more fluid and dynamic, have enlarged their borders to a transnational scale, and handle the inclusion and exclusion of nodes in flexible ways.
These networks are complex due to the high number of nodes individuals, enterprises, teams, political actors, etc. But global network capitalism is based on structural inequalities; it is made up of segmented spaces in which central hubs transnational corporations, certain political actors, regions, countries, Western lifestyles, and worldviews centralize the production, control, and flows of economic, political, and cultural capital property, power, definition capacities.
8 Surprising Ways Computer Science Benefits Society [2018 & Beyond]
This segmentation is an expression of the overall competitive character of contemporary society. Other scholars prefer to speak of information capitalism Morris-Suzuki or informational capitalism Manuel CastellsChristian FuchsSchmiede a, b.
Manuel Castells sees informationalism as a new technological paradigm he speaks of a mode of development characterized by "information generation, processing, and transmission" that have become "the fundamental sources of productivity and power" Castells Castells has added to theories of the information society the idea that in contemporary society dominant functions and processes are increasingly organized around networks that constitute the new social morphology of society Castells But Castells also makes clear that the rise of a new "mode of development" is shaped by capitalist production, i.
Antonio Negri and Michael Hardt argue that contemporary society is an Empire that is characterized by a singular global logic of capitalist domination that is based on immaterial labour. With the concept of immaterial labour Negri and Hardt introduce ideas of information society discourse into their Marxist account of contemporary capitalism.
There would be two forms: Overall, neo-Marxist accounts of the information society have in common that they stress that knowledge, information technologies, and computer networks have played a role in the restructuration and globalization of capitalism and the emergence of a flexible regime of accumulation David Harvey They warn that new technologies are embedded into societal antagonisms that cause structural unemploymentrising poverty, social exclusionthe deregulation of the welfare state and of labour rightsthe lowering of wages, welfare, etc.
Concepts such as knowledge society, information society, network society, informational capitalism, postindustrial society, transnational network capitalism, postmodern society, etc. It has become a specific branch of contemporary sociology. Second and third nature[ edit ] This section relies largely or entirely upon a single source. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources.
August Learn how and when to remove this template message Information society is the means of getting information from one place to another. As a society we transform this process so it becomes something natural to us, i. So, by following a particular pattern created by culture we are able to recognise how we use and move information in different ways.
It can only be understood in context. Part of this context is historical: Part of it is economic: A third part is political: These hypotheses about the origins, development and implications of the information society are at the heart of this book.
The book begins with an historical survey, which sweeps without apology across much of the history of mankind.
In that history, we observe first the development of writing, as people seek to preserve more information than their memories can hold and communicate it to those to whom they cannot speak.
We trace the development of different systems of writing until one — the alphabet — emerges and supersedes almost all of the others because it is an adaptable and flexible means of preserving the languages in which we think and speak.
Even the alphabet, however, cannot cope with all the concepts that the human mind can invent. Systems were developed which enabled our ancestors to record sound as musical notationnumeric data and the relationship between them as numbers and symbols for mathematical functions and visual representation of size, shape and colour.
The invention of printing has been seen as a defining moment in the history of mankind. Certainly, it facilitated important changes in the organization and structure of western European culture, religion and politics, and was to be one of the instruments of European domination of almost all of the rest of the world.
In the smaller world of communications, printing had another effect which we consider at length: A printer, we shall argue, needed more than merely skills in order to practise his craft successfully; a printer also needed both capital for the equipment with which the product was made and distribution systems through which the product could be sold. The printed book was the first mass medium, because it was economically impossible for it to be anything else.
The process of writing, producing and selling printed books was, for years, the unchallenged system of communication between literate people. It became so familiar as to become a paradigm; its vocabulary and some of its customs have been imitated by the producers and consumers of very different media. In this book, the paradigm has been exploited to the full.
There is a substantial analysis of the process of book publishing, and of the industry that has developed around it.
This is developed as a model of commercial systems for the communication of knowledge and information, which can be applied in turn to the other media that have proliferated in the last years.
The development of those other media — sound, vision, computing, and various combinations of them — is the final historical strand in this study. The history of information and communication in the last years is, in part, the history of the development of new devices and systems which have extended our power to communicate in two ways. First, they have made it more systematic and faster and hence more efficient. Secondly, and more importantly, they have extended the scope of what can be communicated.
Above all, accurate representations of visual phenomena — photography, film, video — have become a part of our daily lives. We have moved beyond text and language into the storage and communication of images of the visual world in which we actually live.
Other inventions have speeded the transmission of information: These tools of communication are the building blocks of the information society. An increasingly literate society has, paradoxically, become more dependent than ever on oral and visual communication systems. Only at the very end of our historical story do we reach the computer, and yet as soon as we do so we can begin to see its all-pervasive effects.
The computer has brought together so many of the developments of the past. It has both demanded and facilitated the convergence of technologies, which allows us to combine computing with telecommunications and the digitization of text and image to permit almost instantaneous worldwide and indeed extra-terrestrial transmission of data. We turn next to the economic issues that have arisen, which are becoming more acute and which are being more urgently addressed because of the increasing predominance of technology in the process of information provision and the delivery of information services.
Information, as has already been suggested, was commodified and valorized by the invention of printing and the consequent development of an industry which used printing as its key technology. Publishing — the paradigm — is in the front line of exposure to change under the impact of the information revolution. The market-place itself is being redefined and extended.
Some activities traditionally associated with publishing and others traditionally associated with libraries are being disaggregated and recombined.
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The new configurations have wide implications far beyond the boundaries of the academic world in which many of them originated. The printed word, which has been the traditional commodity in the information market-place, was supplemented and to a limited extent displaced throughout the 20th century.
The information revolution encompasses all those media that communicate information to recipients. In the developed world, and indeed far beyond it, the most potent medium of all is television, the near-universal domestic source of information, entertainment and social interaction. Broadcasting, first in sound only and then in both sound and vision, has been with us for nearly years.
Its ability to transmit information and opinion instantaneously, with great apparent authority and directly to the home, was a force whose power was recognized before World War II and has been consistently exploited by governments, pressure groups and commercial interests ever since it was identified.
Radio and television are integral to the information revolution, and yet they are also subject to it. Satellite broadcasting, which is computer-dependent, has brought a new sense of freedom to the television industry, but, like so many other developments, has also reiterated, if reiteration were needed, the need for huge capital investment to gain access to this key medium of information and influence.
Broadcasting is, by definition, a public activity. Information, however, is increasingly seen, in some respects, as being too valuable to be public. Stored in databases throughout the world is information with commercial potential to which access is restricted by the ability of the information-seeker to pay for it.
Again a revolution is being wrought. The library is the historic paradigm of information storage and retrieval as publishing is of information marketing. Libraries, like publishers, have been in the front line of change. These changes are far from superficial; it is not just that libraries now contain a wide range of media, and are increasingly dependent upon technology both for their management and for the provision of services to users.
There are far more profound economic changes, for libraries are part of the increasingly commercialized chain of information supply. Traditionally, the library was merely the customer of the publisher. Outside the confines of the institutional library, information providers have few of the inhibitions that have traditionally made librarians look askance at such matters. Information has values assigned to it, and it is provided at a profit to the provider; prices are determined by the forces of the market.
It is out of these economic themes covered in Chapters 3 and 4 that the political themes that predominate in Chapters 5 and 6 emerge.