Knowledge management (KM) has been one of the big- gest buzzwords in business most library managers may not be expected to craft a perfect KM program at apprentice, or a rigidly hierarchical relationship. However, mentoring is for. Knowledge management in libraries is to promote relationship in and between libraries, between library and user, to strengthen knowledge. From the literature on knowledge management some links will be drawn to academic libraries and their core functions. This will be linked up to.
Knowledge Innovation Management Knowledge innovation management in libraries refers to the management of the production, diffusion and transfer of knowledge as well as of the network systems constructed by related institutions and organizations.
It includes three aspects, namely, theoretical innovation management of knowledge, technical innovation management and organizational innovation management.
Theoretical innovation management is to enrich and enlarge the theoretical and practical research fields of library science and information science through pursuing the latest development trends in library science the world over. Technical innovation management is to manage the network systems constructed by institutions and organizations that relate to the full course of technical innovation. In their evolution from conventional libraries to electronic libraries, or digital libraries, Libraries should make technical breakthroughs and progress and build up technical facilities to support knowledge management.
Organizational innovation management is to create a set of effective organizational management systems adaptable to the requirements in the electronic library era to support and strengthen knowledge management activities, by optimizing the functional departments and operation procedures of libraries.
In these systems, it firstly requires that leaders who take charge of knowledge management activities should undertake to formulate the management plans and coordinate all knowledge management related activities. Secondly, it requires establishment of special leading groups of knowledge flow for accomplishing all tasks relating to knowledge management activities.
Electronic resources committees are established composed of various types of specialists to take charge of evaluating, procuring and creating the electronic resources on the one hand, and coordinating activities of business departments and spurring them on to close cooperation in such fields as procurement and organization of the electronic information resources as well as providing services on the other hand . Knowledge Dissemination Management Knowledge dissemination is of equal importance as compared to knowledge innovation.
Knowledge creators do not have much time and energy to look for knowledge users. Though there are a multitude of knowledge users, it is very difficult to acquire knowledge that already exists in the minds of knowledge creators as restricted by various objective and subjective conditions.
Knowledge Management and the Role of Libraries
Therefore, libraries may play the part of knowledge tosser, use diverse media and channels to disseminate various new knowledge. In the 21st century, the Internet, with its mass information and extensive contents, will provide people with the main approach to searching knowledge and acquiring information. But now there emerge absurd, salacious, false and uncivil information resulting from seeking for commercial profits and political objectives on the Net.
Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen knowledge dissemination management in libraries as follows: Knowledge Application Management In the 21st century libraries should also attach importance to provision of services for people to acquire knowledge and achieve maximum functions and efficiency of knowledge information. Therefore, knowledge services based on high-speed information networks should be carried out by: Setting up virtual libraries or information centers for enterprises, governments, public organizations and scientific research institutions.
It is difficult for an enterprise or a social organization to put sufficient manpower, material and financial resources on information gathering, organizing and developing. It is also impossible and unnecessary to spend a large amount of funds on information resources for their own use.
Libraries can create virtual libraries or information centers for these organs separately according to their respective information requirements by using abundant information resources on the high-speed information networks. Setting up digitized knowledge services which is actually a development trend of libraries in the 21st century.
The electronic libraries or digitized libraries are the technical modes and development trends of libraries in the knowledge economy era. The knowledge services of libraries in the future will start with creation of databases comprising electronic journals and books in different languages that have discipline features and can operate on high-speed information networks. Great efforts should be made to transform all existing large non-electronic information resources into electronic information and integrate them into electronic libraries.
Human Resources Management Human resources management takes it as its basic starting point to train high quality specialized talents and to revitalize the library undertaking. That is, to some people, rigid management method is applied, rigorous supervision and control imposed, and quantity and quality requirements of work according to regulations and procedures are made clear.
And, to the rest of people, more flexible management method is applied to let them participate in decision-making and consultation and undertake more jobs so as to bring their management abilities into full play and realize organizational and personal objectives.
Doing well in continuous engineering education of specialized staffs, which should not only focus on the theory of library science and related disciplines, but also cover the latest technical knowledge. And strengthening professional ethics education .
Therefore, the main train of thought in realizing knowledge management of libraries is a rational design of the organizational structure and business procedures of libraries, and cultural fostering, as well as modernized information support, thus creating an environment and incentive mechanism forinnovation, exchange, study and application of the knowledge.
The Chief Knowledge Officer CKO is the highest-ranking person in charge of knowledge management, which has evolved from CIO along with the transition of information research management into knowledge management. The CKO system represents the latest development trends of the information management system of the organizations, and marks the transition of information management from the stage of information resources management to that of knowledge management.
The implementation of knowledge management will inevitably give rise to organization of library business process. This reorganization will also be the process of further combination of library business management with knowledge management.
The main contents include: In a word, to make full use of knowledge, it is necessary to foster a new type of library culture suitable to its requirement.
This is high level requirement of realizing technology of knowledge management. In the Field of Information Technology The main information technologies relevant to knowledge management includes: Internet, Intranet and Extranet; storage architectures; database management systems; metadata; data acquisition and gathering; dissemination, messaging; push and pull; information retrieval; information resources sharing; groupware; middleware; on-line analytical processing; multidimensional analysis and data mining.
How to convert data to the object of knowledge management — knowledge is also relevant to some basic information technologies, mainly including data processing, reporting, networked communication, document management, information search and retrieval, relational and object-oriented databases, electronic publishing, work flow and help desks . In addition, because of the differences in architecture, usage and characteristics between information and knowledge, the storage and management of knowledge are more complicated than those of information.
It must be considered as part of a larger context where the whole human being, or employee is part of the present knowledge. To do so, different strategies and approaches can be applied.
Different knowledge must be presented in different ways.
Also, people learn and observe differently. Different approaches may appeal to different people. Therefore, a variety of ways to share and facilitate organisation learning is important.
It is important not to just store and pass on information and expecting knowledge to follow. According to Wiigp. A community of practice where observation and communication is made possible is a good way of displaying tacit knowledge and learning from each other.
Learning in Professional Life A socio-cultural view on learning would state that all professionals must be socialised into a work environment to meet the required expectations. Motivation for learning is also higher when one sees the relevance.
Working in communities with others gives the opportunity of asking when a problem arises and solving the problem in collaboration with a more experienced colleague. A new program or other will require staff to acquire new knowledge and know-how. Through LOD, employees receive instant feedback and reinforcement and have reduced anxiety and fear of failure.
Through a practical approach in a community where employees are able to learn from each other, learning outcomes seem to be high. Knowledge management is a fairly new area that has developed in the last 20 years. It seems clear that all organizations should have a strategy for knowledge management.
It may also be described as the activities where employees create products or services. Intranets or other written material stored electronically can be a way of sharing this knowledge and passing it on.
This can be facilitated through such aids as intranet or colleague learning through observation. The pooling of knowledge and information makes way for a more social learning process that also is better for obtaining and passing on tacit knowledge.
This is pretty straightforward, and it is the goal of the knowledge management process. It will also benefit the organisations end users. These systems should provide easy access to information that can be translated into knowledge.
However, a KMS system alone will not be able to give new employees everything they need. The importance of communities of practice should not be underestimated. Nevertheless a well-functioning KMS will save time for employees needing to refresh their memory. They should also have a lesser need to ask their co-workers. Discussion The library is a complex web of data, information and knowledge. Books and journals must be catalogued and organized in a way that is logical to our users. The users should further be given instruction on how to use databases and reference sources.
We need to adjust our services in order to stay current and stay relevant. Innovation cannot be forced, but grows where it is allowed. Innovation has always been important in library science, as we need to stay ahead of our users to anticipate their needs.
Knowledge management is important not only to library management and their employees, but it also benefits library users. Principles and Best Practices IFLA, highlights the importance of development of skills and competencies which should be prioritised to facilitate KM. This is formulated in the 10 points that make up what best practice requires: Building knowledge consists of five major activities: Codify and model knowledge, 5.
Organize knowledge Dalkir,p. The analysing of knowledge is clear in this first point. In order for library staff to be up to date on new skills and knowledge, it is important that library management has a clear understanding of what knowledge is needed. Broad range of learning opportunities, both formal and informal; formal offerings in a choice of formats, designed to meet identified needs, in modules structured to cover topics from introductory through advanced.
This point can be associated with the pooling of information where learning is planned for groups and individuals where knowledge is coordinated and accessed in a social learning process. It can also be understood as the need for professional communities of practice where socio-cultural learning takes place. Organizational commitment and leadership from staff development and continuing education administrators with expertise in adult continuing education.
Widely disseminated information about continuing education and resources, accurately described. Both point 3 and 4 are closely connected to building knowledge, where staff development is an important factor for obtaining and codifying and modelling knowledge. CE activities design that includes learning objectives aligned with identified needs; follows principles of instructional design and learning theory; selects course instructors on the basis of both subject knowledge and teaching ability; attends to transfer of training and feedback.
Transfer of training and feedback can be understood as both holding and pooling of knowledge where knowledge is archived in KMS and used in a social setting for learning and accessing knowledge. A minimum of 0. Evaluation of continuing education and staff development offerings and program.
Research that assesses the state of CPD and examines the efficacy and outcomes of continuing education and staff development programs. Analysing and organising knowledge, reconstructing, codifying and obtaining new knowledge are the steps that constitute the building of knowledge. It is clear that these 10 points all have a very close link to KM. KM methods could and should be applied in order to manage and develop academic libraries. Knowledge must be built, held, pooled and used.
To build knowledge it is important to map out what knowledge is needed and how this can be obtained. A study from describes how liaison librarians were asked to complete a survey that rendered their competencies and self-esteem connected to different desired skills visible, and further how a socio-cultural environment and community of practice had a positive effect on their self-confidence Daland, This is also confirmed in Jain One study from Romania maps 5 libraries and how they have implemented knowledge management.
Libraries need to focus on future assignments and develop a strategy for how and what competencies the employees need.
Knowledge Management in Libraries in the 21st Century – Information Science Today
When asked, most executives will state that their greatest asset is the knowledge held by their employees. Therefore it is vital that library management knows what knowledge and competencies their employees have, and what they are lacking. This way employment policy and planning can be made better. Studies suggest that this is not the case.
According to Townley libraries do not manage knowledge as well as they manage information. They do not structure their organizations to use organizational knowledge. Much of the knowledge management literature regarding libraries focus on how information can be brought to library users and translated into knowledge. Townley also focuses on the importance of this. Knowledge must be structured in ways that are intuitive for the intended community of practice.
Knowledge that is intuitive for cataloguers may not be immediately intuitive for an archivist or reference librarian, and vice versa. It is clear, however, that communities of practice and sharing of knowledge is important among colleagues in order for them to use the knowledge in the best possible way, further offering library users the best possible services. Knowledge Management Obstacles Although KM is a useful tool, there are some potential obstacles to implementing this in academic libraries.
The challenge of tacit knowledge has been discussed earlier, but also the challenge of motivating employees must be considered.