Flu and Pneumonia Prevention | American Heart Association
If you're hospitalized with pneumonia,your heart attack risk may rise in the following 20, , Journal of the American Medical Association. Your risk for cardiovascular disease is higher if you have been hospitalized for a connection between pneumonia hospitalization and heart disease, but the. To examine the association between history and severity of heart failure and mortality KEY WORDS: heart failure, pneumonia, outcome, clinical epidemiology.
Cardiovascular Disease Cardiovascular diseasesometimes called cardiac disease or heart disease, is a group of conditions affecting either the heart or the blood vessels, or both. Types of cardiovascular diseases include: Coronary heart disease, caused by buildup of plaque in the arteries supplying blood to the heart Peripheral artery disease, with plaque buildup in the arteries serving the arms and legs Carotid artery disease, with plaque buildup in the arteries serving the brain Heart failure, a condition where the heart functions poorly More than Heart disease is the leading cause of death for men and women, as it claims aboutAmerican lives annually.
Coronary heart disease is the most common type of cardiovascular disease, killingpeople each year. Pneumonia is inflammation of the lungs, often caused by infection from bacteria or viruses but may result from inhalation of liquid, food, gas or dust.
Flu and pneumonia infections increase risk of having a heart attack and stroke
Inaccording to the American Lung Association55, people died from pneumonia. That year, hospitals dischargedmales with a diagnosis of pneumonia and discharged anotherfemales with that same diagnosis.
If the researchers in the new study are right, this means more than a million Americans face an increased risk for developing cardiovascular disease. Previous studies had suggested a connection between pneumonia hospitalization and heart disease, but the Ottawa Hospital Research Institute scientists were the first to look only at pneumonia patients without a previous history of cardiovascular disease.
Preexisting coronary artery disease CAD was said to be present when medical records documented a previous MI, abnormal coronary angiogram or stress test, or a distinctive electrocardiographic abnormality.
Heart attack risk rises after a bout of pneumonia - Harvard Health
Serious arrhythmias were defined as atrial flutter, AF, and ventricular tachycardia, but excluded terminal arrhythmias. We used Framingham criteria [ 20 ] to diagnose CHF.
Only patients in whom CHF as determined by a composite of the above was new or had worsened on the basis of objective data were included in our final analysis. Many of these patients were examined and observed prospectively from admission by the senior investigator D. For this study, we carefully reviewed the complete electronic medical records made for each patient at hospital admission for pneumonia; a finding of MI, arrhythmia, or CHF, as defined above, prompted further review of prior records to determine whether the finding was a new one.
Most patients had been examined as outpatients in the few months prior to admission, and all patients who survived the episode of pneumonia returned to the clinic for follow-up at least once after discharge from the hospital.
Heart attack risk rises after a bout of pneumonia
We performed a Medline search for articles linking pneumonia, pulmonary infection, S. We searched Old Medline for articles published from to under the same subject headings and manually searched Index Medicus for articles published from to We also read the relevant references that had been cited in these articles. Results Patients with pneumococcal pneumonia. During the 5-year study period 1 January through 31 Decemberpatients met our inclusion criteria for pneumococcal pneumonia; 33 For clarity of presentation, we stratified the 33 patients who had pneumonia and an acute myocardial event as follows table 1: Thus, in total, among 33 patients who had acute pneumococcal pneumonia and a cardiac event, 12 7.
Table 1 Major cardiac events in consecutive patients admitted to a hospital for pneumococcal pneumonia. Table 1 View large Download slide Major cardiac events in consecutive patients admitted to a hospital for pneumococcal pneumonia. When considering all patients who were admitted for pneumococcal pneumonia, 61 were bacteremic, 89 were nonbacteremic, and in 20, blood sample cultures were not performed or they had negative results but had only been performed after antibiotics had been administered.
Twelve patients table 2 had concurrent MI and pneumococcal pneumonia at admission. Nine had non—ST-elevation MI; in each case, electrocardiographic changes were observed in leads corresponding to myocardial regions supplied by defined coronary arteries.
All 12 had elevated troponin I serum levels. Two underwent noninvasive stress testing, which revealed reversible ischemia in a defined coronary artery territory. Echocardiograms were available for 8 patients; 5 of these revealed depressed LV function a new finding in 4 patients. Table 2 Myocardial infarction at the time of hospital admission for patients with pneumococcal pneumonia.
Table 2 View large Download slide Myocardial infarction at the time of hospital admission for patients with pneumococcal pneumonia. Symptoms of pneumonia preceded those attributable to cardiac disease in every case.
In some cases, attention at hospital admission was focused exclusively on the myocardial event, with treatment for pneumonia being delayed up to 36 h, whereas in others, pneumonia was the admitting diagnosis, and the myocardial event received only perfunctory attention.
Factors likely to contribute to MI include inflammation, hypoxia, anemia, stress, and hypotension figure 1. By virtue of having pneumonia, all patients had a major inflammatory illness. Four patients met criteria for shock sepsis induced vs. Figure 1 Postulated pathogenesis of cardiac events in pneumococcal pneumonia.
CHF, congestive heart failure.
Figure 1 View large Download slide Postulated pathogenesis of cardiac events in pneumococcal pneumonia. Eight patients had new onset of an arrhythmia at or within the first 48 h of hospital admission for pneumococcal pneumonia; 7 had AF and 1 had ventricular tachycardia table 3. None of these provided evidence of a new MI. In each case, the acute nature of the arrhythmia was suggested by the medical history and documented by the finding of normal rhythm on prior clinic visits.