Quinine Sulfate Drug Information, Professional
At the first opportunity, Salumbrino sent a small quantity to Rome for testing as a malaria treatment. Prior tothe bark was first dried, ground to a fine powder, and then mixed into a liquid commonly wine which was then drunk.
Large-scale use of quinine as a malaria prophylaxis started around In Paul Briquet published a brief history and discussion of the literature on "quinquina".
Quinine had been said to be the prime reason Africa ceased to be known as the "white man's grave". A historian has stated, "it was quinine's efficacy that gave colonists fresh opportunities to swarm into the Gold CoastNigeria and other parts of west Africa". The Dutch government persisted in its attempts to smuggle the seeds, and in the late 19th century the Dutch grew the plants in Indonesian plantations.
Quinine - Wikipedia
Soon they became the main suppliers of the plant, and in they set up the Kina Bureau, a cartel of cinchona producers charged with controlling price and production. The US had obtained four million cinchona seeds from the Philippines and began operating cinchona plantations in Costa Rica.
Such supplies came too late. They were first marketed in and available until at least the s.
Quinine and Quinidine
Pfizer Pharmaceuticals had been selling the brand name Legatrin for this purpose. Doctors may still prescribe quinine, but the FDA has ordered firms to stop marketing unapproved drug products containing quinine.
The FDA is also cautioning consumers about off-label use of quinine to treat leg cramps. Quinine is approved for treatment of malaria, but is also commonly prescribed to treat leg cramps and similar conditions. Because malaria is life-threatening, the risks associated with quinine use are considered acceptable when used to treat that affliction.
It is marketed as a treatment for malaria and is sold in the United States only by prescription.
Quinine has a schizonticidal action. Its ability to concentrate in parasitized erythrocytes may account for its selective toxicity against the erythrocytic stages of the four malarial parasites, including Plasmodium falciparum strains resistant to chloroquine.
Antimyotonic—Quinine increases the refractory period of skeletal muscle by direct action on the muscle fiber and the distribution of calcium within the muscle fiber, thereby diminishing the response to tetanic stimulation. It also decreases the excitability of the motor end-plate region, reducing the responses to repetitive nerve stimulation and to acetylcholine.
Quinine and Quinidine
Rapidly and almost completely absorbed. Distribution of quinine may vary depending on the degree of illness; the volume of distribution is smaller in patients with cerebral malaria and increases with recovery. Children and pregnant women have a smaller volume of distribution than do nonpregnant female adults and male adults.
Plasma and red blood cell RBC concentrations appear to be similar before infection; however, during a malaria attack, plasma concentrations are considerably higher than RBC concentrations. Time to peak serum concentration Acute malaria—Approximately 5. Mean serum concentration Approximately 7 mcg per mL, following chronic administration of total daily doses of 1 gram.
Precautions to Consider Patients hypersensitive to quinidine may be hypersensitive to this medication also. These are the results of both slowed depolarization and repolarization. History[ edit ] The effects of cinchona bark the botanical source from which quinidine is extracted had been commented on long before the understanding of cardiac physiology arose.
As a result of his influence, throughout the 19th century, quinine was used to augment digitalis therapy. It was described as das Opium des Herzens the opium of the heart. However, the use of quinidine to treat arrhythmia really only came into its own because a physician listened to the astute observation of one of his patients.
InKarel Frederik Wenckebach saw a man with atrial fibrillation.