Guided practice: continuity and change in the Byzantine Empire (article) | Khan Academy
In A.D., Roman Emperor Constantine I chose Byzantium as the site of a “New Rome” with an eponymous capital city, Constantinople. Third Rome is the hypothetical successor to the legacy of ancient Rome (the "first Rome"). Second Rome usually refers to Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine. The Byzantine Papacy was a period of Byzantine domination of the Roman papacy from to . the political and religious relationship between Rome and Constantinople was effectively stabilized, leaving Constans II free to focus his forces.
Belisarius, who had been sent back to Italy inwas eventually recalled to Constantinople in Despite continuing resistance from a few Gothic garrisons and two subsequent invasions by the Franks and Alemannithe war for the Italian peninsula was at an end. The empire held on to a small slice of the Iberian Peninsula coast until the reign of Heraclius.
Tribes of Serbs and Croats were later resettled in the northwestern Balkans, during the reign of Heraclius.
Relationships Between The Roman And Byzantine Empires by Delanie S. on Prezi
The strengthening of the Danube fleet caused the Kutrigur Huns to withdraw and they agreed to a treaty that allowed safe passage back across the Danube. Philosophers such as John Philoponus drew on neoplatonic ideas in addition to Christian thought and empiricism. Because of active paganism of its professors Justinian closed down the Neoplatonic Academy in Other schools continued in ConstantinopleAntioch and Alexandria which were the centers of Justinian's empire. Completed inthe Hagia Sophia stands today as one of the major monuments of Byzantine architectural history.
Half of the Italian peninsula and some part af Spain were lost, but the borders were pushed eastward where Byzantines received some land from the Persians. After Justinian died inhis successor, Justin IIrefused to pay the large tribute to the Persians. Meanwhile, the Germanic Lombards invaded Italy; by the end of the century, only a third of Italy was in Byzantine hands. Justin's successor, Tiberius IIchoosing between his enemies, awarded subsidies to the Avars while taking military action against the Persians.
Although Tiberius' general, Mauriceled an effective campaign on the eastern frontier, subsidies failed to restrain the Avars. They captured the Balkan fortress of Sirmium inwhile the Slavs began to make inroads across the Danube.
Maurice's treaty with his new brother-in-law enlarged the territories of the Empire to the East and allowed the energetic Emperor to focus on the Balkans. Bya series of successful Byzantine campaigns had pushed the Avars and Slavs back across the Danube. A revolt broke out under an officer named Phocas, who marched the troops back to Constantinople; Maurice and his family were murdered while trying to escape.
Fresco by Piero della Francescac. He was eventually deposed in by Heracliuswho sailed to Constantinople from Carthage with an icon affixed to the prow of his ship. After this, the Sassanid army was forced to withdraw to Anatolia. The loss came just after news had reached them of yet another Byzantine victory, where Heraclius's brother Theodore scored well against the Persian general Shahin. The Byzantine Empire in — Because of the Byzantine—Sasanian War of — both Byzantines and Persians exhausted themselves and made them vulnerable for the expansion of the Caliphate.
In the Byzantine Empire had lost all of its southern provinces except the Exarchate of Africa to the Caliphate. At the same time the Slavs laid pressure and settled in the Balkans.EU4 - Timelapse - Roman Empire Restoration as Byzantium
The main Sassanid force was destroyed at Nineveh inand in Heraclius restored the True Cross to Jerusalem in a majestic ceremony,  as he marched into the Sassanid capital of Ctesiphonwhere anarchy and civil war reigned as a result of the enduring war.
Eventually, the Persians were obliged to withdraw all armed forces and return Sassanid-ruled Egyptthe Levant and whatever imperial territories of Mesopotamia and Armenia were in Roman hands at the time of an earlier peace treaty in c. The war had exhausted both the Byzantines and Sassanids, however, and left them extremely vulnerable to the Muslim forces that emerged in the following years. The Arabs, now firmly in control of Syria and the Levantsent frequent raiding parties deep into Asia Minor, and in — laid siege to Constantinople itself.
The Arab fleet was finally repulsed through the use of Greek fireand a thirty-years' truce was signed between the Empire and the Umayyad Caliphate. The city also lost the free grain shipments inafter Egypt fell first to the Persians and then to the Arabs, and public wheat distribution ceased. This system may have had its roots in certain ad hoc measures taken by Heraclius, but over the course of the 7th century it developed into an entirely new system of imperial governance.
Twenty Years' Anarchy The withdrawal of large numbers of troops from the Balkans to combat the Persians and then the Arabs in the east opened the door for the gradual southward expansion of Slavic peoples into the peninsula, and, as in Asia Minor, many cities shrank to small fortified settlements. InByzantine forces sent to disperse these new settlements were defeated.
InConstantine IV signed a treaty with the Bulgar khan Asparukhand the new Bulgarian state assumed sovereignty over a number of Slavic tribes that had previously, at least in name, recognised Byzantine rule.
He was driven from power inand took shelter first with the Khazars and then with the Bulgarians. Also during the Fourth Crusades, western crusaders sack Constantinople.
And we can go all the way to where all that was left at the time of the Byzantine Empire or you could say the eastern Roman Empire is Constantinople and inthat also gets sacked by the Ottomans and that's the official end of the Byzantine Empire, the eastern Roman Empire, which you can see continues on for another years after the fall of the western Roman Empire.
Now with that review out of the way, let's think about how the Byzantine Empire was the same and different from the Roman Empire.
Byzantine Papacy - Wikipedia
So first let's think about the center of power. Well the Roman Empire is named after its seat of power during the great majority of its history. The seat of power of the Roman Empire is Rome. Near the end of the western Roman Empire it becomes Ravenna and of course we talk about Constantine changing the capital to Byzantium which eventually became Constantinople and that's the official start of at least the roots of the Byzantine Empire although Constantine was emperor of both.
It's fair to say that Rome was the capital of the Roman Empire from its early days as a kingdom all the way until the first several centuries of the common era.
The roots of the Byzantine Empire are with Constantine changing the capital, the seat of power of the combined empire and moving it from Rome to Byzantium, which will eventually be called Constantinople. Now let's think about language. So the language of the Roman Empire is Latin.
In the early days of the Byzantine Empire, Latin is used in conjunction with Greek but over time, it becomes more Greek. In fact, Heraclius in the seventh century makes Greek the official language of the Byzantine Empire. Now religion, for most of Roman history, their religion is the Roman Pantheon. Now near the end of what is called the Roman Empire, when Constantine comes around in the early fourth century, Christianity gets legalized and Theodosius, who is the last emperor to rule over both east and west, he makes Christianity the official religion.
Since the eastern Roman Empire's roots, the Byzantine empire's roots are considered to be with Constantine. It has a Christian nature from the beginning and it only becomes more and more Christian over time. In other videos, we will talk about the eventual spiritual split between east and west, the Latin Christian church and the Greek Christian church and they're going to diverge more and more as we go into the year when there is the official Great Schism.
In terms of law, the Roman Empire has a long tradition of law and I guess we could just call it the Roman law.
Guided practice: continuity and change in the Byzantine Empire
In fact, so profound has its influence been on western civilization that many of our legal terms today come from Latin. What historians would consider the Byzantine Empire would continue Roman law, much of it written in Latin. Justinian would famously try to reform Roman law, make it more consistent, make it more clear.