Sociology - Wikipedia
Its immediate precursor took shape in the work of Edward Burnett Tylor and James George Frazer in the late 19th century and underwent major changes in both method and theory during the period with a new emphasis on original fieldwork, long-term holistic study of social behavior in natural settings, and the introduction of French and German social theory. Bronislaw Malinowskione of the most important influences on British social anthropology, emphasized long term fieldwork in which anthropologists work in the vernacular and immerse themselves in the daily practices of local people.
Thus, "savages" from the colonies were displayed, often nudes, in cages, in what has been called " human zoos ". For example, inCongolese pygmy Ota Benga was put by anthropologist Madison Grant in a cage in the Bronx Zoolabelled "the missing link" between an orangutan and the "white race" — Grant, a renowned eugenicistwas also the author of The Passing of the Great Race Such exhibitions were attempts to illustrate and prove in the same movement the validity of scientific racismwhich first formulation may be found in Arthur de Gobineau 's An Essay on the Inequality of Human Races — Inthe Colonial Exhibition in Paris still displayed Kanaks from New Caledonia in the "indigenous village"; it received 24 million visitors in six months, thus demonstrating the popularity of such "human zoos".
Anthropology grew increasingly distinct from natural history and by the end of the 19th century the discipline began to crystallize into its modern form - byfor example, it was possible for T. Penniman to write a history of the discipline entitled A Hundred Years of Anthropology.
At the time, the field was dominated by "the comparative method". It was assumed that all societies passed through a single evolutionary process from the most primitive to most advanced. Non-European societies were thus seen as evolutionary "living fossils" that could be studied in order to understand the European past. Scholars wrote histories of prehistoric migrations which were sometimes valuable but often also fanciful. It was during this time that Europeans first accurately traced Polynesian migrations across the Pacific Ocean for instance - although some of them believed it originated in Egypt.
Finally, the concept of race was actively discussed as a way to classify - and rank - human beings based on difference. Tylor and Frazer[ edit ] E. Tylor19th-century British anthropologist E.
Tylor 2 October — 2 January and James George Frazer 1 January — 7 May are generally considered the antecedents to modern social anthropology in Britain.
Although Tylor undertook a field trip to Mexicoboth he and Frazer derived most of the material for their comparative studies through extensive reading, not fieldworkmainly the Classics literature and history of Greece and Romethe work of the early European folklorists, and reports from missionaries, travelers, and contemporaneous ethnologists.
Tylor advocated strongly for unilinealism and a form of "uniformity of mankind". Tylor also theorized about the origins of religious beliefs in human beings, proposing a theory of animism as the earliest stage, and noting that "religion" has many components, of which he believed the most important to be belief in supernatural beings as opposed to moral systems, cosmology, etc.
Frazer, a Scottish scholar with a broad knowledge of Classics, also concerned himself with religion, myth, and magic. His comparative studies, most influentially in the numerous editions of The Golden Boughanalyzed similarities in religious belief and symbolism globally.
Neither Tylor nor Frazer, however, were particularly interested in fieldworknor were they interested in examining how the cultural elements and institutions fit together.
The Golden Bough was abridged drastically in subsequent editions after his first.
- Anthropology and Sociology
- What are Sociology and Anthropology?
- Cultural Anthropology/Introduction
Malinowski and the British School[ edit ] Bronislaw Malinowski, Anthropologist at the London School of Economics Toward the turn of the 20th century, a number of anthropologists became dissatisfied with this categorization of cultural elements; historical reconstructions also came to seem increasingly speculative to them. Under the influence of several younger scholars, a new approach came to predominate among British anthropologists, concerned with analyzing how societies held together in the present synchronic analysis, rather than diachronic or historical analysisand emphasizing long-term one to several years immersion fieldwork.
Cambridge University financed a multidisciplinary expedition to the Torres Strait Islands inorganized by Alfred Cort Haddon and including a physician-anthropologist, William Riversas well as a linguist, a botanist, and other specialists.
The findings of the expedition set new standards for ethnographic description. As a subject of the Austro-Hungarian Empire resident on a British colonial possession, he was effectively confined to New Guinea for several years.
The major theorists belonged to these organizations. They supported the gradual osmosis of anthropology curricula into the major institutions of higher learning. By the American Association for the Advancement of Science was able to report that 48 educational institutions in 13 countries had some curriculum in anthropology.
Anthropology - Wikipedia
None of the 75 faculty members were under a department named anthropology. Anthropology has diversified from a few major subdivisions to dozens more. Practical anthropology, the use of anthropological knowledge and technique to solve specific problems, has arrived; for example, the presence of buried victims might stimulate the use of a forensic archaeologist to recreate the final scene.
The organization has reached global level. For example, the World Council of Anthropological Associations WCAA"a network of national, regional and international associations that aims to promote worldwide communication and cooperation in anthropology", currently contains members from about three dozen nations.
Cultural anthropology, in particular, has emphasized cultural relativismholismand the use of findings to frame cultural critiques. Ethnography is one of its primary research designs as well as the text that is generated from anthropological fieldwork. In the United States, anthropology has traditionally been divided into the four field approach developed by Franz Boas in the early 20th century: These fields frequently overlap but tend to use different methodologies and techniques.Why Study Sociology and Anthropology?
European countries with overseas colonies tended to practice more ethnology a term coined and defined by Adam F. It is sometimes referred to as sociocultural anthropology in the parts of the world that were influenced by the European tradition. American anthropology Anthropology is a global discipline involving humanities, social sciences and natural sciences.
Anthropology builds upon knowledge from natural sciencesincluding the discoveries about the origin and evolution of Homo sapienshuman physical traits, human behaviorthe variations among different groups of humans, how the evolutionary past of Homo sapiens has influenced its social organization and culture, and from social sciencesincluding the organization of human social and cultural relations, institutions, social conflicts, etc.
According to Clifford Geertz"anthropology is perhaps the last of the great nineteenth-century conglomerate disciplines still for the most part organizationally intact. Long after natural history, moral philosophy, philology, and political economy have dissolved into their specialized successors, it has remained a diffuse assemblage of ethnology, human biology, comparative linguistics, and prehistory, held together mainly by the vested interests, sunk costs, and administrative habits of academia, and by a romantic image of comprehensive scholarship.
During the s and s, there was an epistemological shift away from the positivist traditions that had largely informed the discipline. In contrast, archaeology and biological anthropology remained largely positivist. Due to this difference in epistemology, the four sub-fields of anthropology have lacked cohesion over the last several decades. Cultural anthropologySocial anthropologyand Sociocultural anthropology Sociocultural anthropology draws together the principle axes of cultural anthropology and social anthropology.
Cultural anthropology is the comparative study of the manifold ways in which people make sense of the world around them, while social anthropology is the study of the relationships among individuals and groups.
There is no hard-and-fast distinction between them, and these categories overlap to a considerable degree. Inquiry in sociocultural anthropology is guided in part by cultural relativismthe attempt to understand other societies in terms of their own cultural symbols and values. Ethnography can refer to both a methodology and the product of ethnographic research, i. As a methodology, ethnography is based upon long-term fieldwork within a community or other research site.
Participant observation is one of the foundational methods of social and cultural anthropology. The process of participant-observation can be especially helpful to understanding a culture from an emic conceptual, vs.