Plant - Wikipedia
The relationship between leaf area and plant biomass was found to be .. in the R programming language (source code in Supplementary Data Sheet 1) and Also, previous studies have shown that growth is determined more by SLA than. tribal youth, our adult participants indicated that they felt that cultural erosion has had an method study examining the relationship between SOC and AI youth's. He predicted that the re- sults of the first cross would be plants bearing all smooth Mendel observed that the dependent variable, the proportion of wrinkled peas, was Researchers studying human psychological development have debated.
Throughout this period, botany remained firmly subordinate to medicine. Bock created his own system of plant classification.
Physician Valerius Cordus — authored a botanically and pharmacologically important herbal Historia Plantarum in and a pharmacopoeia of lasting importance, the Dispensatorium in Naturalist Ulisse Aldrovandi — was considered the father of natural history, which included the study of plants.
Inusing an early microscope, Polymath Robert Hooke discovered cellsa term he coined, in corkand a short time later in living plant tissue. During the 18th century, systems of plant identification were developed comparable to dichotomous keyswhere unidentified plants are placed into taxonomic groups e.
Evolutionary history of plants - Wikipedia
The choice and sequence of the characters may be artificial in keys designed purely for identification diagnostic keys or more closely related to the natural or phyletic order of the taxa in synoptic keys.
This established a standardised binomial or two-part naming scheme where the first name represented the genus and the second identified the species within the genus.
The 24th group, Cryptogamia, included all plants with concealed reproductive parts, mosses, liverworts, ferns, algae and fungi. Adansonde Jussieuand Candolle all proposed various alternative natural systems of classification that grouped plants using a wider range of shared characters and were widely followed. The Candollean system reflected his ideas of the progression of morphological complexity and the later classification by Bentham and Hookerwhich was influential until the midth century, was influenced by Candolle's approach.
Darwin 's publication of the Origin of Species in and his concept of common descent required modifications to the Candollean system to reflect evolutionary relationships as distinct from mere morphological similarity. Botany uses Latin names for identification, here, the specific name glauca means blue.
Late modern botany[ edit ] Micropropagation of transgenic plants Building upon the gene-chromosome theory of heredity that originated with Gregor Mendel —August Weismann — proved that inheritance only takes place through gametes.
No other cells can pass on inherited characters. Her books Plant Anatomy and Anatomy of Seed Plants have been key plant structural biology texts for more than half a century. The concept that the composition of plant communities such as temperate broadleaf forest changes by a process of ecological succession was developed by Henry Chandler CowlesArthur Tansley and Frederic Clements.
Clements is credited with the idea of climax vegetation as the most complex vegetation that an environment can support and Tansley introduced the concept of ecosystems to biology. These developments, coupled with new methods for measuring the size of stomatal apertures, and the rate of photosynthesis have enabled precise description of the rates of gas exchange between plants and the atmosphere.
Thimann in enabled regulation of plant growth by externally applied chemicals. Frederick Campion Steward pioneered techniques of micropropagation and plant tissue culture controlled by plant hormones.
Evolutionary history of plants
With the rise of the related molecular-scale biological approaches of molecular biologygenomicsproteomics and metabolomicsthe relationship between the plant genome and most aspects of the biochemistry, physiology, morphology and behaviour of plants can be subjected to detailed experimental analysis.
These technologies enable the biotechnological use of whole plants or plant cell cultures grown in bioreactors to synthesise pesticidesantibiotics or other pharmaceuticalsas well as the practical application of genetically modified crops designed for traits such as improved yield. Carbon C that is fixed in photosynthesis is partitioned, first between sucrose synthesis for immediate use and export, and starch synthesis to supply reduced C at night. The reduced C supplied to the plant supports maintenance respiration with the remaining C available for growth.
Reduced C used for growth is partially consumed in growth respiration which provides energy to convert the remaining C to new biomass. C partitioning to drive leaf thickening, leaf area growth, as well as to drive growth of other organs may depend on the developmental phase of the plant. Depending on C partitioning, leaf area may or may not be a good indicator of total plant biomass.
RGRM of a plant or a specific plant organ depends on the partitioning of photosynthetic C between new leaf and root growth, respiration, exudation, and reproduction. Growth in leaf mass can result from an increase in area or thickness; Total leaf mass growth is the sum of mass increase for leaf area growth and leaf thickening.
Many growth models have been developed to simulate growth and development of a variety of plants in silico, including that of Saccharum Marin and Jones,Brassica Grossman et al.
Some models have been designed to simulate growth of a specific plant organ such as the root Bidel et al.Pyramids True Purpose FINALLY DISCOVERED: Advanced Ancient Technology
Rasse and Tocquin investigated the effect of transient starch production on plant growth.