Economic development generates resources that can be used to improve trade production relationships limit possibilities of using international trade to the imbalance between population growth and resource development will worsen. They become the victims of what could be described as cultural extinction . How can renewable resources become nonrenewable resources? Rapid growth in the human population can mainly be attributed to what 2 things? Describe the relationship between population density and population distribution. What are the things you need to survive? Humans all need resources, and in this lesson, we will discuss how the growth of the human.
In most if not all cases, their promotion at government level and successful pursuit will require two types of activities: Finally, it is worth noting that population-environment linkages are, in many settings, an interesting addition to traditional population education themes: Field experiences in communication campaigns focused on such themes, built upon assessments of the people's perceptions regarding environmental change, its causes and consequences, can be utilized with profit in new contexts.
UNFPA support could be considered for some of these activities. UNFPA first stated its interest for studying selected aspects of the population-environment nexus several years ago already, in its Handbook of Policy Guidelines. In the population and environment area this task was effectively tackled only in ; the outcome is a well-articulated Guidance Note on Population and the Environment, the substance of which is the following.
Population and development policies and plans should take environmental links and concerns into account. UNFPA can help this process through "studies for incorporating demographic features into policies and plans as well as programmes designed to integrate the direct and induced effects of demographic changes on environment and development programmes". Policy-oriented research and analysis should bear on "the interaction between demographic trends and factors and sustainable development [and help] identify priority areas for action and develop strategies and programmes to mitigate the adverse impact of environmental change on human populations, and vice versa".
Examples of important issues are: A Potential population-supporting capacities: B Population pressure, poverty and environmental degradation: UNFPA can support policy-relevant research to clarify the relationship. C Population and food security: UNFPA "can help clarify this important issue by, for example, supporting studies of national food production capability under different population growth and density scenarios", especially in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.
It can also support country studies on: D Population and the growth of cities: But urbanization also creates its own management problems.
UNFPA can support research on e. E Population and deforestation: UNFPA can support research to clarify the role of those causes, particularly population factors. F Population and desertification: The extent of desertification taking place in these areas is likely to be caused by a multiplicity of factors of which population pressures, density and migration play a role that should be clarified by careful research". G Population and water scarcity: UNFPA can support research that will provide a solid basis for the design of informed policy options and effective strategies to reach sustainable levels of water use".
While many enthusiasts for centralisation and urbanisation argue this allows for resources to be used more efficiently, in developing countries this mass movement of people heading towards the cities in search of employment and opportunity often outstrips the pace of development, leading to slums, poor if any environmental regulation, and higher levels of centralised pollution.
Even in developed nations, more people are moving to the cities than ever before. The pressure placed on growing cities and their resources such as water, energy and food due to continuing growth includes pollution from additional cars, heaters and other modern luxuries, which can cause a range of localised environmental problems. Humans have always moved around the world. However, government policies, conflict or environmental crises can enhance these migrations, often causing short or long-term environmental damage.
For example, since conditions in the Middle East have seen population transfer also known as unplanned migration result in several million refugees fleeing countries including Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan. The sudden development of often huge refugee camps can affect water supplies, cause land damage such as felling of trees for fuel or pollute environments lack of sewerage systems. Unplanned migration is not only difficult for refugees. Having so many people living so closely together without adequate infrastructure causes environmental damage too.
Population composition The composition of a population can also affect the surrounding environment.
[The relationships between population growth and environment: from doctrinal to empirical].
At present, the global population has both the largest proportion of young people under 24 and the largest percentage of elderly people in history. As young people are more likely to migrate, this leads to intensified urban environmental concerns, as listed above.
Life expectancy has increased by approximately 20 years since While this is a triumph for mankind, and certainly a good thing for the individual, from the planet's point of view it is just another body that is continuing to consume resources and produce waste for around 40 per cent longer than in the past.
Ageing populations are another element to the multi-faceted implications of demographic population change, and pose challenges of their own. For example between andJapan's proportion of people over 65 grew from 7 per cent to more than 20 per cent of its population. This has huge implications on the workforce, as well as government spending on pensions and health care.
Increasing lifespans are great for individuals and families. But with more generations living simultaneously, it puts our resources under pressure. Population income is also an important consideration. The uneven distribution of income results in pressure on the environment from both the lowest and highest income levels. They may also be forced to deplete scarce natural resources, such as forests or animal populations, to feed their families.Thomas Malthus (Malthusianism): Does Population Growth Lead to Food Shortages & Resource Depletion?
On the other end of the spectrum, those with the highest incomes consume disproportionately large levels of resources through the cars they drive, the homes they live in and the lifestyle choices they make. On a country-wide level, economic development and environmental damage are also linked. The least developed nations tend to have lower levels of industrial activity, resulting in lower levels of environmental damage.
The most developed countries have found ways of improving technology and energy efficiency to reduce their environmental impact while retaining high levels of production. It is the countries in between—those that are developing and experiencing intense resource consumption which may be driven by demand from developed countries —that are often the location of the most environmental damage.
Population consumption While poverty and environmental degradation are closely interrelated, it is the unsustainable patterns of consumption and production, primarily in developed nations, that are of even greater concern.
For many, particularly in industrialised countries, the consumption of goods and resources is just a part of our lives and culture, promoted not only by advertisers but also by governments wanting to continually grow their economy.
Culturally, it is considered a normal part of life to shop, buy and consume, to continually strive to own a bigger home or a faster car, all frequently promoted as signs of success. It may be fine to participate in consumer culture and to value material possessions, but in excess it is harming both the planet and our emotional wellbeing.
More clothes, more gadgets, bigger cars, bigger houses—consuming goods and resources has big effects on our planet.
The environmental impact of all this consumption is huge. The mass production of goods, many of them unnecessary for a comfortable life, is using large amounts of energy, creating excess pollution, and generating huge amounts of waste.
To complicate matters, environmental impacts of high levels of consumption are not confined to the local area or even country. This enables them to enjoy the products without having to deal with the immediate impacts of the factories or pollution that went in to creating them.
On a global scale, not all humans are equally responsible for environmental harm. Consumption patterns and resource use are very high in some parts of the world, while in others—often in countries with far more people—they are low, and the basic needs of whole populations are not being met. The reverse was also true—for example the population of North America grew only 4 per cent between andwhile its carbon emissions grew by 14 per cent.
Individuals living in developed countries have, in general, a much bigger ecological footprint GLOSSARY ecological footprintThe impact of a person or community on the environment, expressed as the amount of land required to sustain their use of natural resources.
Population and environment: a global challenge
The ecological footprint is a standardised measure of how much productive land and water is needed to produce the resources that are consumed, and to absorb the wastes produced by a person or group of people.
Today humanity uses the equivalent of 1. This means it now takes the Earth one year and six months to regenerate what we use in a year. Global Footprint Network When Australian consumption is viewed from a global perspective, we leave an exceptionally large 'ecological footprint'—one of the largest in the world. While the average global footprint is 2. To put this in perspective, if the rest of world lived like we do in Australia, we would need the equivalent of 3.
Similarly, an American has an ecological footprint almost 9 times larger than an Indian—so while the population of India far exceeds that of the United States, in terms of environmental damage, it is the American consumption of resources that is causing the higher level of damage to the planet. What is the solution? How do we solve the delicate problem of population growth and environmental limitations? Joel Cohen, a mathematician and author characterised potential solutions in the following way: Advances in food production technologies such as agriculture, water purification and genetic engineering may help to feed the masses, while moving away from fossil fuels to renewable power sources such as wind and solar will go some way to reducing climate change.
Population and environment: a global challenge - Curious
In the United Nations Environment Programme UNEP released a report titled ' Decoupling 2 ', which explored the possibilities and opportunities of technology and innovation to accelerate decoupling, and an analysis of how far technical innovation can go. Funding and research should be a high priority in these areas, but we must accept that technology can only do so much, and is only part of the solution.
Investing in clean energy is one way to reduce our environmental strain on the planet. Birth rates naturally decline when populations are given access to sexual and reproductive healthcare, education for boys and girls beyond the primary level is encouraged and made available, and women are empowered to participate in social and political life. Continuing to support programs and policies in these areas should see a corresponding drop in birth rates.
Similarly, as the incomes of individuals in developing countries increase, there is a corresponding decrease in birth rates. This is another incentive for richer countries to help their poorer neighbours reach their development potential. Providing a health, educational or financial incentive has also proven to be effective in combating some population issues.
However, there are debates about incentive programs such as paying women in India to undergo sterilisation. Opponents question whether accepting these incentives is really is a choice, or whether the recipient has been coerced into it through community pressure or financial desperation. Education is the foundation for our future, and not only because it helps to reduce unsustainable birthrates.
Fewer forks can also cover another complicated area—the option of seriously controlling population growth by force. China has done so in the past and attracted both high praise and severe humanitarian criticism. This is a morally- economically- and politically-charged topic, to which there is no easy answer. Less is more The better manners approach seeks to educate people about their actions and the consequences of those actions, leading to a change in behaviour.