Relationship between Type A Personality Trait and Stress The Personal Construct theory by Kelly () is based on an analysis on our. The relationship between stress and personality factors. Voichita M. Dumitru . theories consider that both the introvert and the extrovert share. Path analysis was used to test the relationships among personality, stress, and .. Webster, ), and theory of stress, appraisal, and coping.
Good medical practice, healthcare professionals, job performance, personality, stress Introduction and Literature Review Healthcare professionals owe the responsibility of delivering quality healthcare services. The ever-increasing demand of healthcare services and the sensitivity of the work at hospitals have increased the levels of job stress on the individuals working in it.
Especially, the amount of work pressure on doctors has increased enormously. Recent research has examined people using extensive lists of personality dimensions and has distilled them into Big Five.
Famous researchers Friedman and Rosenman[ 14 ] believed that people belong to either of the two basic types of behavior or personality, type A and type B.
Type A behaviors include being ambitious, competitive, alert, impatient, and aggressive. They find time for family and friends, and tend to choose leisure pursuits that are less competitive than type A's choice. It may have positive aspect in that some individuals may feel challenged and may be able to raise their productivity to meet the increasing demand. However, the ability of the individual to take stress positively or negatively may be related to the personality type of the individual, which may have its own consequences upon work performance.
In a nutshell, the delivery of high-quality medical care contributes to improved health outcomes of the patients, which may be affected by the psychological and emotional state of the healthcare professionals. The present study has attempted to study the sources of stress among healthcare professionals and the behavior of the personality types A and B toward stress.
Further, the performance of both personality types and the relationship between stress and performance with respect to personality type A and type B healthcare professionals have also been examined. Methods Study design The following hypotheses were tested: There shall be significant differences between personality type A and type B for stressful situations.
There shall be significant differences between personality type A and type B for performance dimensions. There is negative relationship between perceived stress among healthcare professionals and performance.
Stress and Personality
Participants The sample for this study included healthcare professionals of PGI, Chandigarh, consisting of nurses, junior residents, senior residents, physiotherapists, and interns. The questionnaires were distributed to respondents. But some were not returned and a few were incomplete, finally making the sample size of The distribution of the participants according to their age group is as follows: The study was conducted during — Measures To achieve the objective of the study, a questionnaire was designed to collect the information from the healthcare professionals.
Dumitru and Cozman in Nigeria reported that correlations between personality factors and stress both in concerns of perceived stress and level of subsequent stress symptomatology were identified. The reviewed study was conducted among nurses and not high school Principals whose nature and condition of work differs considerably.
Stress and Personality
In Homa Bay County of Kenya, there are reported cases of stressful experiences among high school principals. This has made some principals to opt out of their position of responsibilities. The changing environment of the learners, challenges of acquiring teaching and learning materials and blame for examination cheating and failure, creates stress on the principals because of being answerable on the school to all education stakeholders.
All these seem to make the high school principals experience a lot of stress. Methodology This research study was based on a mixed method research approach which was used for collecting, analysing and mixing both quantitative and qualitative data in a single study Creswell, The Convergent parallel design was used in collecting both qualitative and quantitative data separately. The population of the study were high school Principals in public high schools in Homa Bay County of Kenya.
For a population of two hundred and ninety five according to the table, a sample size of one hundred and sixty nine The questionnaires were tested to 20 principals sampled from one neighbouring County to test if they captured the concept under investigation.
This ensured content and face validity of the research instruments.
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A pilot study was conducted before the main study to ensure that the instruments were measuring what they intended to measure. To test the hypothesis, for the responses on type A personality questionnaire for each respondents were summed up and the totals obtained. Since the questionnaire had 14 test items, on a 5 likert scale, the maximum score which could be obtained was 70 and the minimum score was Therefore the mean scores on the responses were obtained for each participant.
The same was done to the stress management questionnaire which had 25 test items on a five likert scale. The mean score was also obtained.
This made the data to be at an internal scale. Hence parametric test Pearson correlation was used to analyse data. Therefore, a Pearson Product Moment correlation was used to determine the relationship between type A personality questionnaire and stress management. The traits used were; the Principals strong accent to key words in everyday life, doing more than one thing at a time, often feeling guilty if they use extra time to relax, involvement in great number of projects all at once, need to win in order to derive enjoyment from games and sports besides other behaviours.
The respondents were expected to respond on each statements based on their level of agreement or disagreement. The means obtained were therefore used as an index for behaviour, feeling and action items as indicated in Table 1. This fact was confirmed by This is in tandem with Carver and Smith in Miami United States of America who found out that most high school principals hold immediate and frequent stakeholders meetings and consultations in their schools as a way of resolving conflicts.
Only a mere less than a tenth 8. The findings are in agreement with McManus, Keeling and Paice in United Kingdom who in their study found a strong association between personality traits and coping styles, as individuals with high rewards dependence were more inclined to engage in emotion focused coping while high rewards dependence were more inclined to engage in low emotion coping. On the same note, more than nine out of ten strongly agreed: Only less than five percent 4.
This is in tandem with Ghamwari and Jamal in Lebanon who found out that, the individuals with maladaptive personality traits are at great risk of experiencing psychological distress as they are avoiding coping. These types of Principal can be at risk of contracting heart diseases, hypertension for they want to do everything all at the same time which cause a lot of pressure on them hence the cause of their stress. They should learn that people should only do what is realistically possible.
There is need for these category of principal to be advised to take a rest or plan ahead of time to avoid last minute rush or beating tight deadlines.
Behavior of Personality Type Toward Stress and Job Performance: A Study of Healthcare Professionals
A bivariate correlation analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between the two variables. It was used to establish whether there was any significant relationship between the two variables. This was a reasonable amount of variance explained by only one independent variable. This is in agreement with Goswami who, found out that stress and burnout were found to be statistically significant predictors of job stress and burnout.
This finding is also in tandem with Lee-Baggley, Preece and Delongis in Kenya who in his study found that type A personality principal are poor in managing stress. They clench their fist and are forceful as they talk. They normally do not take a no for an answer hence difficult to convince, this makes them more stressed in case they cannot get their way out. It is important that stress management strategy be put in place for those types of principals to help them relax and eased their pace of doing things.Measuring Personality: Crash Course Psychology #22
Qualitatively the main themes emerged through verbatim excerpts from individual principals in their stress management skills. It is these duties which have concordance to their abilities to manage their stresses. To ascertain the relationship between type A personality traits and stress management, qualitative data was obtained from the interview transcripts and was analysed on how the principals with type A personality manage their stressful situations in their work environment.
Findings from the analysed data indicated that most principals reported that they adopted multi-tasking to manage their stress. In multi-tasking this meant that the principals had to undertake variety of tasks at the same time in order to meet deadline. For example some excerpts from the participants were: This means that for a principal to manage the school properly they must do more than one thing at a time.
This finding resonates Harlow in United States of America whose study found out that role stress and task stress contributed most to the relationship between personality type, stress and job satisfaction.
Similarly another principal on her side responded that: As a principal the other stake holders must know my feelings about something. I also ensure that those feelings are adopted and implanted. Principal, 4 This response means that the principal 4 is hands on in her management of the school.
This finding is in tandem with Brunnela and Schlotter whose results indicated that high cognitive test score are likely to result not only from high cognitive skills but also from motivation and adequate personality traits. Similarly Dumitru and Cozman in Nigeria noted that a high intensity of psychological symptoms following stress was associated with low social presence, low empathy, low independence, low good impression, low orientation and low psychological institution.
This means that principals with type A personality are poor stress managers. They do not engage in strategic mechanisms to manage their stresses.