What is the relationship between bone density and weight bearing exercise

Osteoporosis and exercise - Better Health Channel

what is the relationship between bone density and weight bearing exercise

There are two types of osteoporosis exercises that are important for building and maintaining bone density: weight-bearing and muscle-strengthening exercises. About million Americans have osteoporosis, which is defined by weak and Numerous studies have shown that weight-bearing exercise can help to slow. The exercise program should be designed to load specific target bone(s) or body sites. The degree of increase in bone density depends on the mode and intensity a direct relationship between physical activity and increased bone mass.

Interestingly, higher BMD in athletes has been found at the body sites loaded during their respective sports, validating the principle of specificity elaborated above. As well, certain activities may not apply a sufficient enough overload to cause an increase in bone mass.

Athletes who perform moderate to high-intensity impact activities, such as in gymnastics, power lifting, and jumping activities, have been found to have greater BMD than those performing non-impact or low-intensity activities, such as swimming and cycling. Some elite swimmers have even been found to have a lower BMD than non-exercisers, apparently due to unloading of their bones, which takes place during extending periods of time in a buoyant environment.

It is especially beneficial for adults with low initial BMD values to begin exercise programs that enhance BMD, as these are the individuals who will see the most impressive gains.

Building Bone Density

For example, studies in children have consistently found higher BMD values in dominant limbs when compared to non-dominant limbs. Other investigations have found that young athletes who load their dominant limbs preferentially while exercising such as tennis players have even greater disparities in BMD between their dominant and non-dominant sides.

what is the relationship between bone density and weight bearing exercise

Additionally, jumping and other weight-bearing activities have been found to provide a significant increase in bone density at the spine and hip in prepubescent children. Some recent evidence suggests that exercise provides the best long-term benefits in BMD when it is initiated before puberty.

As in adults, exercise interventions in children should be designed taking into account the principles of specificity, overload, reversibility, initial values, and diminishing returns. Unlike adults, children have been found to maintain their BMD gains from weight-bearing exercise, even if the exercise program is discontinued.

Slowing bone loss with weight-bearing exercise - Harvard Health

Research has also found that low-impact activities, such as walking, are not effective exercise interventions for preventing bone loss in post-menopausal women. Thus, the principle of overload should be applied, and exercises that provide a more substantial load on bone should be included. For instance, jogging and weight training may increase bone density in healthy post-menopausal women in a site-specific manner.

Studies of postmenopausal women incorporating exercise with hormone replacement therapy HRT currently show varied interactions with the prevention of bone loss.

  • Slowing bone loss with weight-bearing exercise

In some studies, exercise enhances the effect of HRT, whereas in other investigations no interaction has been observed combining HRT with exercise. However, calcium is a major mineral that is vital to the bones, and is needed for the heart, muscles and nerves to function properly for the blood to clot.

Osteoporosis and exercise

Ideally, weekly physical activity should include something from all three groups. Swimming and water exercise for people with osteoporosis Swimming and water exercise such as aqua aerobics or hydrotherapy are not weight-bearing exercises, because the buoyancy of the water counteracts the effects of gravity.

However, exercising in water can improve your cardiovascular fitness and muscle strength. People with severe osteoporosis or kyphosis hunching of the upper back who are at high risk of bone fractures may find that swimming or water exercise is their preferred activity.

Exercise | Osteoporosis Australia

Consult with your doctor or healthcare professional. Walking for people with osteoporosis Even though walking is a weight-bearing exercise, it does not greatly improve bone health, muscle strength, fitness or balance, unless it is carried out at high intensity such as at a faster pace, for long durations such as bushwalking or incorporates challenging terrain such as hills.

However, for people who are otherwise inactive, walking may be a safe way to introduce some physical activity.

what is the relationship between bone density and weight bearing exercise

Exercises that people with osteoporosis should avoid A person with osteoporosis has weakened bones that are prone to fracturing. They should avoid activities that: BoxDammamKingdom of Saudi Arabia. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

what is the relationship between bone density and weight bearing exercise

Osteoporosis is a major public health problem affecting the elderly population, particularly women. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of adding weight-bearing exercise as opposed to nonweight-bearing programs to the medical treatment of bone mineral density BMD and health-related quality of life HRQoL of elderly patients with osteoporosis.

what is the relationship between bone density and weight bearing exercise

Participating in the study were 40 elderly osteoporotic patients 27 females and 13 maleswith ages ranging from 60 to 67 years, who were receiving medical treatment for osteoporosis. They were assigned randomly into two groups: Twenty patients practiced weight-bearing exercises. Twenty patients did nonweight-bearing exercises. BMD of the lumbar spine, right neck of femur, and right distal radial head of all patients were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry before and after both treatment programs.

T-tests proved that mean values of BMD of the lumbar spine, right neck of femur and right distal radial head were significantly increased in both groups with greater improvement in the weight-bearing group. The QoL was significantly improved in both groups, but the difference between them was not significant.