Fertilization terminology: gametes, zygotes, haploid, diploid (video) | Khan Academy
Hello friend!!!! The difference between gamete and Zygote GAMETE It is a germ cell that takes part in fertilization. There are two types of. Gamete refers to the individual haploid sex cell, i.e, the egg or the sperm. Zygote is a diploid cell formed when two gamete cells are joined by means of sexual reproduction. Zygote is the diploid cell that results from the fertilization between an egg and a sperm. Each parent produces a GAMETE. These fuse during FERTILIZATION to form a ZYGOTE.
Difference between a Gamete and a Zygote
And as we'll see, each gamete has half the number of chromosomes as your body cells or most of the somatic cells of your body so outside of your sex cells that might be in your ovaries or your testes, depending on whether you're male or female, these have half the number so let's dig a little bit deeper into what I mean there.
So let's just do a blow up of this sperm cell right over here, so a blow up of a sperm cell and I'm not going to draw it to scale, you see the sperm cell is much smaller than the egg cell but just to get a sense, so let me draw the nucleus of this sperm cell, so just like that.
If we're talking about a human being, and I'm assuming you are a human being, so that might be of interest to you, this will have 23 chromosomes from your father so let's do them.Mitosis, Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
One, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 and for the 23rd one, that's going to be your sex-determining chromosome so if your father contributes an x, you are going to be female, if your father contributes a y, you are going to be male.
So these are the chromosomes in the male gamete or I guess I should say the gamete that your father's contributing, the sperm. So this is a gamete right over here and that's going to fuse with the egg, the ovum that your mother is contributing and once again, I'm not drawing that to scale.
So this is the egg, and let me draw it's nucleus.
What is the relationship between gamete ,zygote and fertilization?
So that's it's nucleus, once again none of this is drawn to scale. And your mother is also going to contribute 23 chromosomes. So one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 and then she will contribute an x chromosome for the sex determining so your sex determining chromosomes are going to be xy, you're going to be male, if this was xx, you're going to be female so this is also a gamete here.
So a gamete is the general term for either a sperm or an egg.
Now once these two things are fused, what do we have? Once they're fused, then we're going to have you could say a fertilized egg but we are going to call that a zygote so let me draw that. I'm going to do this in a new color, and I'm running out of space and I want this all to fit on the same screen so I'll draw it not quite at scale and so let me draw the nucleus of the zygote, I'm going to make the nucleus fairly large so that we can focus on the chromosomes in it, once again none of this is drawn to scale.
So you're going to have the 23 chromosomes from your father, so let me do that. One, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23, and then the 23 chromosomes from your mother. One, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 so you got that x chromosome from your mother.
And as you might have notice, I've drawn them in pairs so you now have a total, let me make it clear, you have 23 chromosomes here, 23 chromosomes in the sperm, you have 23 chromosomes in the egg and now you have 46 chromosomes in the fertilized egg, 46 chromosomes, and now that we have a full contingent of chromosomes and then this cell can now keep replicating, keep splitting and differentiating into all of what makes you, you, we call this right over here, we call this a zygote.
So one way to think about it, the gametes are the sex cells that have half the number of chromosomes and the zygote is the cell that's now ready to differentiate into an actual organism that has double the number or that has a full contingency of chromosomes, that has 46 chromosomes, and you see that I've made them in pairs and these pairs, we call these homologous pairs and in each of these pairs, this is a pair of homologous chromosomes.
Difference between Gamete and Zygote - Explainry
So what does that mean? Well that means that in general, these two chromosomes, you got one from your father, one from your mother, they code for the same things, they code for the same proteins but there are different variants of how they code for those proteins, those traits that you have so gross oversimplification is, let's say that there is a gene on, that one from your father that helps code for hair color well there would be a similar, there would be another variant of that gene on the chromosome from your mother that helps code for hair color as well.
So these are homologous chromosomes, these two chromosomes code, in general, for the same things and so the zygote now has, you could say it has 46 chromosomes or you could say it has 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes. Because of its composition, it is only able to carry half of the genetic materials necessary to create and sustain life.
A zygote, by contrast, is a diploid cell that has 46 chromosomes. It is the carrier of the complete set of genetic materials necessary for fetal development. Chromosome Composition Chromosomes are thread-like, circular structures made up of hereditary units called genes. There are two major types of chromosomes: As the name implies, sex chromosomes are integral for identifying sex. Females carry identical sex chromosomes XXwhile males have two different chromosomes XY.
Autosomes, on the contrary, have no sex-determining ability.
A gamete has only 1 sex chromosome Y or X and 1 copy of autosomes. After two gametes successfully unite, the chromosomes of each gamete combine, which explains why a zygote carries 2 sex chromosomes XY or XX and 2 copies of autosomes. Site Gametes exist in two types: While the male gamete is located in the testis, the female gamete is developed in the ovary. A zygote, on the other hand, is only found in the female reproductive system.
To be specific, a zygote is initially developed in the fallopian tube.
Motility There are major differences between a gamete and a zygote in terms of mobility.