Relation between job satisfaction & absenteeism • Job satisfaction and absenteeism are two human resource conditions that directly relate to. Job satisfaction is considered the main determinant of absenteeism. turnover) reflect ”invisible” attitudes such as job dissatisfaction, low level. The Relation Between Job Satisfaction, Absenteeism, and The Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Employee Turnover Rate.
Hence, it is important for managers to take innovative steps to make work more interesting in order to increase the levels of job satisfaction of employees. Fox as cited by Connolly and Myersp. In addition to this, Bajpai and Srivastava postulate that promotion provides employees with opportunities for personal growth, more responsibilities and also increased social status. Robbins maintains that employees seek promotion policies and practices that they perceive to be fair and unambiguous and in line with their expectations.
Research indicates that employees who perceive that promotion decisions are made in a fair and just manner are most likely to experience job satisfaction. Furthermore, a study by Bishop and Scott as cited by Aamodt found that satisfaction with supervisors was related to organisational and team commitment, which in turn resulted in higher productivity, lower turnover and a greater willingness to help.
According to Luthansthere seem to be three dimensions of supervision that affect job satisfaction. The first dimension has to do with the extent to which supervisors concern themselves with the welfare of their employees.
The second dimension has to do with the extent to which people participate in decisions that affect their jobs. Research by Grasso and Malka as cited by Egan and Kadushin found a positive relationship between managerial behaviour that encourages participation in decision-making and job satisfaction.
Research indicates that employees who have supportive co-workers will be more satisfied with their jobs Aamodt, ; Robbins, ; The reverse can also be true. Working conditions refer to such aspects as temperature, lighting, noise and ventilation. Robbins states that employees are concerned with their work environment for both personal comfort and for facilitating good job performance. Studies have demonstrated that employees prefer physical surroundings that are safe, clean, comfortable and with a minimum degree of distractions Robbins, According to Spectorresearch has shown that employees who perceive high levels of constraints in terms of their work environment, tend to be dissatisfied with their jobs.
According to Robbinsemployees seek for policies and systems that they perceive to be fair as this will likely result in an increase in job satisfaction. Johns distinguishes between distributive fairness and procedural fairness. Distributive fairness is perceived fairness of the actual decisions made in an organisation. If employees perceive that decisions are made in a fair manner, they are likely to express satisfaction with their jobs Robbins, According to Johnsp.
Impact of Job Satisfaction on Absenteeism: A Correlative Study
Aamodt states that the relationship between perceptions of justice and job satisfaction is very strong, hence employers should be open about how decisions are made and provide feedback to employees who might not be happy with certain important decisions. These sources are generally intangible, such as employees feeling a sense of pride in their work as well as individual differences such as personality.
One stream of research has examined this perspective in two ways: For example, a person who desires a job that entails interaction with the public but who is office bound, will be dissatisfied with this aspect of the job. This idea can apparently be traced back to the Hawthorne studies, which found that certain people were continually complaining about their jobs Spector, No matter what the researchers did, the participants found a reason to complain. They concluded that their dissatisfaction is a product of their personality.
Schneider and Dachler as cited by Spector also found that job satisfaction seemed stable over time and that it might be the product of personality traits. This view holds some truth in that people with a negative tendency towards life would most likely respond negatively to their jobs even if their jobs changed Atchison, In these cases, the best organisations could do is to keep these individuals from affecting the rest of their employees.
On the other hand, people with a positive inclination towards life, would most probably have a positive attitude towards their job as well. Aamodthowever, notes that findings on the personality-job satisfaction relationship are controversial and have received some criticism; therefore more research is needed before firm conclusions can be drawn.
Spector further indicates that most research on the personality-job satisfaction relationship has only demonstrated that a correlation exists, without offering much theoretical explanations. These include not only work variables such as performance or turnover, but also personal or non-work variables such as health and satisfaction with life.
The potential effects of job satisfaction on different variables are explained as follows: Robbins concluded that productivity is more likely to lead to satisfaction than the other way around. In addition, higher productivity could lead to an increase in rewards, pay level and promotion, which are all sources of job satisfaction.
The spill over hypothesis suggests that job experiences spill over into life and vice versa. Problems at home can affect satisfaction at work and problems at work can affect home life.
In terms of the segmentation hypothesis, people compartmentalize their lives and satisfaction in one area of life has little to do with satisfaction in another area.
The compensation hypothesis states that people will compensate for a dissatisfying job by seeking fulfillment in non-work life and vice versa. The relationship between life and job satisfaction is thus reciprocal- being satisfied with a job is postulated to affect life satisfaction and vice versa Spector, Descriptive statistics like tables, frequencies and percentages was used for the purpose of analysis.
The scope of the study will be Black horse industries Nigeria, which is located at number 12, Old Lagos Road, Podo Area Ibadan with staff strength of 75 people.
The industry has been in existence for over 30 years producing household, school etc items, ranging from tables, chairs, canopies etc. The population of this research study includes the casual workers of Black Horse industries limited, Ibadan, because the variable involved with the study relates to the casual workers. The findings of the study and every data collected and used are peculiar and related to black horse industries Ibadan.
Hence, this study could be very useful in explaining why workers choose to be absent at work as related to the extrinsic sources of job satisfaction. Fifty 50 questionnaires were distributed randomly to the respondents and administered. Simple random sampling method was used to select the sample size of The primary data was collected through the use of questionnaires while the secondary data was gathered from textbooks, articles and journals.
The questionnaire was used in collecting data on questions relating to impact of job satisfaction on absenteeism. This research is designed to look into the impact of job satisfaction on absenteeism and also the relationship and the interaction these two variables have with one another. This study is structured to incorporate the direct observation of absenteeism and how workers get satisfied.
This will be done through the administration to the casual workers of black horse industries limited, well structured questionnaires that will explain the variables involved in the study. However, in order to capture the relationship that exist between job satisfaction and absenteeism the model assumes. Seven major extrinsic sources of job satisfaction relative to absenteeism are considered and based on the data obtained from the field survey; each of the sources of job satisfaction plays a significant impact on absenteeism.
This is presented in Table 4. Research Field Survey, May It thus means that if the pay does not commensurate with the work done by workers, there exist a very high tendency for the worker to stay absent from work or rather look for a greener pasture.
They are of the opinion that, it is the fairness of pay that determines pay satisfaction rather than the actual level of pay itself. As observed in Table 4. They claim that promotion provides employees with opportunities for personal growth, more responsibilities and also increased social status.
This is mainly because the work group normally serves as a source of support, comfort, advice and assistance to the individual worker. With all these in place, job satisfaction is guaranteed and absenteeism placed on a barest minimum threshold. One factor related to job satisfaction is the extent to which employees perceive that they are being treated fairly.
Employees seek for policies and systems that they perceive to be fair as this will likely result in an increase in job satisfaction. This study further explores a link between job dissatisfaction and absenteeism.
This indicates that over half of the respondents agree that absenteeism means job dissatisfaction. This is depicted in Table 4. Showing link between absenteeism and job dissatisfaction?
Job Satisfaction - PSYCH Work Attitudes and Job Motivation - Confluence
Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent Strongly disagree Model x, y 0. Computational result of data gathering from field using SPSS Thus, there is a significant relationship between absenteeism and job satisfaction. This reveals a positive and direct relationship between the variables. The study further shows that The t-statistical test shows the significant of the hypothesis, t-stat; 8.
This shows that the hypothesis is a significant one. The f-statistical test however shows that the regression is a fly one. The absenteeism of workers in an organization may be caused by lots of factors which in most cases are due to the dissatisfaction of the employees.
This is evident by the work of Griffinwho explained that a satisfied employee tends to absent less often and such an employee makes positive contributions to the organization than an employee that is not satisfied. Also unsatisfied employees tend to quit more often or absent more frequently and produce lowerquality work than other satisfied workers Ivancevich, Robbins also commented that not only is absenteeism related but organizations have a responsibility to provide employees with jobs that are challenging and intrinsically rewarding.
The result obtained at the end of the analysis reveals that there is a direct linkage between employee absenteeism and job satisfaction. It is further discovered that the absenteeism of workers in a work place may be caused by a lot of factors which in most cases are related to the dissatisfaction of the employees. Seven major extrinsic sources of job satisfaction relative to absenteeism including Pay, Promotion, Work Interest, Supervision, Co-Workers, Working condition and fairness of supervisors are considered.
Sequel to the result of the data analysis carried out; each of the sources of job satisfaction plays a significant impact on absenteeism. It is thus highly recommended for employers to strategically design, develop and implement company-standard, employee motivational policies relative to Pay, Promotion, Work Interest, Supervision, Co-Workers, Working condition and fairness of supervisors as this will invariably motivate and encourage employees to be more present and punctual in their place of work and strategically flush out employee absenteeism.
The relationship between self-esteem and job satisfaction of personnel in government organisations. Public Personnel Management 32 4: Employee Benefits Journal 29 1: They myths of employee satisfaction. Healthcare Executive 14 2: Although research might be difficult for job satisfaction theories, especially within the correlation field, there is just enough useful information to help employees and organizations become successful and enjoy their jobs, provided the right type of leadership is at the helm.
Measures of Job Satisfaction The following are measures of job satisfaction as outlined by Fields There are 72 items in this index which assess five facets of job satisfaction which includes: Through the combination of ratings of satisfaction with the facets, a composite measure of job satisfaction is determined. Roznowski updated the JDI to include work atmosphere, job content and work technology.
A shorter item version, was developed by Gregson based on 6 items which included work, pay, promotions, supervision and co-workers Fields,p. Global Job Satisfaction - Warr, Cook, and Wall developed this measure which includes 15 items to determine overall job satisfaction. Two sub-scales are used for extrinsic and intrinsic aspects of the job.
The extrinsic section has eight items and the intrinsic has seven items Fields,p. It is most effective in determining how job stresses, role conflicts, or role ambiguities can hinder an employee from meeting job expectations Fields,p. There is a shorter version of the MSQ which consists of 20 items. This can also be separated into two sub-scales for intrinsic and extrinsic satisfaction.
It consists of 18 items which describe global job satisfaction and can be used in conjunction with the JDI, which assesses satisfaction with five job facets. Job Satisfaction Survey - This was developed by Spector and contains 36 items based on nine job facets.
The job facets include pay, promotion, supervision, benefits, contingent rewards, operating procedures, co-workers, nature of work and communication. When it was initially developed, it was specific to job satisfaction in human service, nonprofit and public organizations Fields,p.
Job Satisfaction Index - Schriescheim and Tsue, developed this measure.
It consists of six items that form and index what determines overall job satisfaction. Job Diagnostic Survey - Hackman and Oldham developed this survey which measures both overall and specific facets of job satisfaction. There are three dimensions of overall job satisfaction which includes general satisfaction, internal work motivation and growth satisfaction, which are combined into a single measure.
The facets which are measured on the survey include security, compensation, co-workers and supervision Fields,p. Career Satisfaction - Greenhaus, Parasuraman, and Wormley developed this measure. This is a measure of career success as opposed to job satisfaction. These include the following Fields, Satisfaction with Work Schedule Flexibility developed by Rothausen Satisfaction with My Supervisor developed by Scarpello and Vandenberg Return to Top Research on Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction is the most frequently studied variable in organizational behavior Spector, Research on job satisfaction is performed through various methods including interviews, observations and questionnaires.
The questionnaire is the most frequently used research method because it is unrestrained in nature. Researchers can use an existing assessment tool or scale, as a means of assessment. Using an existing scale provides the researcher with a valid, reliable and consistent construct while assessing job satisfaction. Job satisfaction can be assessed using a general scale, facet satisfaction scale or global satisfaction scale. The JDI is broken down into five facets of satisfaction: The most significant research study that shows the importance of job satisfaction is the Hawthorne studies Muchinsky, The purpose of the study was to research the relationship between lighting and efficiency.
Various sets of lights at various intensities were set up in rooms where electrical equipment was being produced.
The amount of illumination bright, dim, or a combination provided to the workers seemed to have no effect on production. The results of the study were so unexpected that further investigation revealed many previously unknown aspects of human behavior in the workplace. Researchers learned that factors other than lighting affect worker's productivity. The workers responded positively to the attention they were receiving from the researchers and as a result, productivity rose.
Job performance continued to improve because of the novelty of the situation; when the novelty wore off, production returned to its earlier level. Research has offered little support that a happy employee is productive; in fact, research suggests that causality may flow in the opposite direction from productivity to satisfaction Bassett, Research on this theory supports that job satisfaction is an important factor not only for employees but for organizations as well.
In this case, the managers of the bank decided to re-design the teller jobs to increase job satisfaction. New tasks were added to provide variety and the use of a broad range of skills. In addition to their checking cash, deposit and loan payment tasks, they were trained to handle commercial and traveler's cheques as well as post payments online.
The tellers were also given more autonomy in their roles and decision-making responsibilities. In this particular case, it was observed that job satisfaction had increased. A survey was taken six months later and it was found that not only were the tellers more satisfied with their role but they were also more committed to the organization.
Furthermore, recent studies have shown that there is a direct correlation between staff satisfaction and patient satisfaction. In the case of the physician's office, a study found that not only were the employees and patients more satisfied, the physicians found an increased level of job satisfaction as well.
Hygiene factors are related to the work environment and include: Motivators factors are related to the job and make employees want to succeed and include: According to Herzberg, once the hygiene issues are addressed, the motivators promote job satisfaction and encourage production. In applying Herzberg's theory to the real life physician's practice. The study discussed in detail each aspect of the hygiene factors and how the physicians could apply these factors to create an environment that promoted job satisfaction.
The study then moved on to the motivators and again discussed in detail the aspects of each factor. The image below provides a visual between the differences in motivators and de-motivators in job satisfaction. Return to Top Correlation versus Causation While one may wish to understand which variables increase or decrease job satisfaction, it is important to remember that correlation is not equivalent to causation Steinberg, A correlation indicates that there is a relationship between these variables; however, it does not explain "which variable, if either, caused the relationship" Steinberg,p.
It is entirely possible that an outside variable is responsible for the correlation Steinberg, However, for one person, satisfaction may increase because performance increases, whereas, for another, performance may increase because satisfaction increases. It is impossible to tell whether job satisfaction causes increased job performance or that job performance causes increased job satisfaction based on correlation alone.
The following is a list of alternative explanations of a correlation Pearson, Reverse causation - The causal direction is opposite to what has been hypothesized; e. Reciprocal causation -The two variables cause each other; e. Common-causal variables -Variables not part of the research hypothesis cause both the predictor and the outcome variable; e.
Extraneous variables -Variables other than the predictor causes the outcome variable, but do not cause the predictor variable; e. Mediating variables -Variables caused by the predictor variable in turn cause the outcome variable; e.
Return to Top Experimental Research on Job Satisfaction Even though job satisfaction is highly researched, only a few studies have conducted experiments in this area. Experimental research is very valuable for explaining the causation of the existing relationship between variables, while correlational studies only point out that these relationships exist and describe them. Brief, Butcher, and Roberson conducted a field experiment with 57 hospital workers in order to examine how social information and disposition affect job satisfaction.
The researchers tested three hypotheses; the first one was that negative affectivity NA is associated negatively with job satisfaction. The second one was that positive mood inducing events increase job satisfaction; and the last one was that the effects of positive events on job satisfaction are weaker among high NA individuals than they are among low NA individuals as a result of interaction of NA and positive mood inducing events Brief et al.
The subjects of this study were randomly assigned to two groups. The experimental group received positive mood-inducing incentives; they received cookies, soft drinks and attractively wrapped toys.
The control group did not receive any incentives. The results demonstrated that a disposition to NA is negatively associated with job satisfaction.
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The next findings indicated that positive mood-induced events increased job satisfaction. The last results showed that the individuals with high NA are resistant to positive mood-induced events. All these results were consistent with the hypotheses. This study supplements the knowledge of job satisfaction by providing valuable information about how social information processing mood inducing events and dispositional characteristics NA as a personality trait affect job satisfaction.
The information provided by this research might be utilized by managers in personnel hiring process and to boost job satisfaction. The managers might use the instruments that measure NA and PA positive affectivity in order to predict job satisfaction among employees.
Impact of Job Satisfaction on Absenteeism: A Correlative Study
In addition, they may introduce positive mood-inducing events in the form of incentives that would lead to increased job satisfaction. The four responses are: Exit is a destructive and active response. Voice is an active and constructive response.