Motivation and Emotion | General Psychology
Motivation and emotion share several characteristics and a seemingly to act and behave to achieve a desired goal, while emotion is the feelings that emerge both psychological constructs rely on the relationship between an individual and. Motivation and Emotion. We can say that motivation is the factor that direct and energize the behavior of humans and other organisms. . constructs rely on the relationship between an individual and his environment. That 'emotions arise from progress or hindrance in goal-pursuit' is a simplistic notion. Read the post to know the difference between approach and avoidance motivation, between promotion and Low Sexual Desire · Relationships · Sex . The Output B is a behavioural or motor output from the person.
Sexual Motivation The drive for sex is another example of a behavior that can be explained in terms of balance and homeostasis. Human sexuality is often described in terms of four stages: More or less, sexual thoughts or the presence of an attractive person cause hormonal changes, creating an internal state of tension which is not resolved until orgasm is achieved.
The sex drive appears to be motivated by the secretion of testosterone, which is eventually metabolised whether or not you have sex. It results in increasing levels of excitement and CNS arousal, culminating in orgasm — the rapid contraction of pelvic muscles resulting in a feeling of release and satisfaction.
Obviously, monogamy is not universal. However, the majority of people engage in relationships one-at-a-time, and most people will eventually commit to a for-life monogamous relationship. This is possibly a relic of our evolutionary past, where pair-bonds ensured survival for your mate and your offspring.
Oxytocin, a hormone released during sex, intimate contact, and childbirth, promotes feelings of closeness, bonding, and attachment.
So there may also be a physiological basis for the tendency toward monogamy — although there is also evidence that the release of oxytocin is highest with a new partner, and that this effect might be stronger in some individuals than it is in others. Psychological Motivators Humanistic psychologists focus on psychological needs as the motivators for behaviors, suggesting that our goals, ideals, values, beliefs, and expectations motivate us just as much as our biological drives.
The Hierarchy of Needs, created by Abraham Maslow, is a model of motivation which incorporates both physiological needs and psychological drives, culminating with self-actualization.
Self-actualization can be defined loosely as a high degree of synchrony between your goals, values, self-concept, dreams, and actions. Individuals who are self-actualized are dynamic, genuine, real, autonomous, open, and appreciative. However, to get to this point all of the other needs in the hierarchy must be satisfied — you cannot ignore your physical drives to achieve self-actualization.
Deci and Ryan more recently developed self-determination theory, which emphasizes that we are motivated to grow toward greater levels of autonomy, relatedness, and competence. Autonomy here means behaving in a way which is intrinsically, rather than extrinsically motivated. People who are autonomous do what they do because it matters to them, not to others.
This produces a higher degree of personal fulfilment and satisfaction. Competence is the ability to respond to challenging situations by using your unique skills and abilities. Relatedness is the opportunity to share your values and accomplishments with others.
Components of Emotions Emotions are complex physiological and psychological experiences which can be strong motivators in and of themselves. They involve three components: Use of emotions as information requires emotional intelligence and practice interpreting the non-verbal experience of emotions.
Although the purpose of emotions is not exactly clear, most scientists agree that we evolved the capacity for emotions because they provide information and allow us to share information with other members of our family and community. The basic emotions fear, happiness, surprise, anger, disgust, and sadness reinforce this idea, because they are universally recognized regardless of culture, language, or race. This underscores the notion that emotions are about sharing information.
Motivation and Emotion - meta - Maastricht University
The Subjective Experience The trickiest component of emotions is the subjective experience. Emotions can be analysed and organized based on activation the intensity of the arousalvalence whether it is positive or negativeand interpersonal engagement whether the emotion is social, or personal.
The interpersonal engagement piece is particularly important when we talk about cultural differences in the expression and experience of emotion; for example, americans of european heritage tend to be less aware of the social context of their emotions, so their awareness of interpersonal engagement is lower than individuals of east-asian heritage.
Physiological Arousal and Activation The experience of emotion depends on the activation of physical systems such as the autonomic nervous system and the limbic system. Although research has demonstrated subtle differences in the kind of physiological activation we associate with different emotions, the general rule is that emotions require activation of the sympathetic nervous system and activation of the amygdala — the portion of the brain responsible for interpreting emotional experiences.
The activation of the amygdala is based on sensory input — for example, seeing a bear in the woods results in signals eventually reaching the amygdala, which then communicates with the hypothalamus and medulla to begin activation of the sympathetic nervous system. There are two pathways — direct and indirect — which can be thought of as pre-process and post-process. For example, the image of a bear is routed to the thalamus, then to the visual cortex, then to the temporal lobe for identificationand then to the amygdala.
This is the indirect pathway, which yields slower but more accurate responses. There is also direct communication between the thalamus and amygdala, resulting in a more unconscious response to the stimulus before it has been fully processed. This allows us to respond and possibly escape while we are determining the level of danger, rather than having to wait around for the processing to be completed.
Behavioral Expression of Emotions Behavioral expression can be divided up into two broad classes.Motivation and Emotion
The expressions for basic emotions appear to be pre-programmed based on evolution. These are governed by external rules called display rules, and these rules determine not just how emotions are expressed, but who can express them and when.
Motivation and Emotion
Display rules are really a collection of norms and expectations that help us to understand, filter, and interpret the complex emotions of other people. When people violate these norms we feel confused, awkward, or alienated. So understanding display rules and being able to express emotions appropriately is a function of our participating in society at large, not just a personal experience. Theories of Emotional Interpretation Having looked at the components of emotional experience, the only remaining question is the sequence in which these components are experienced and how that sequence affects our interpretation of emotions.
Motivation has many sources but most of these sources are from internal or external events or desires. Motivation has a relationship with behavior and can been in a person behavior. This paper takes a look at motivation and what it is; the paper also looks at the internal and external sources of motivation along with motivations relationship with behavior and ends with motivation in behavior. Motivation Motivation is an internal state or condition is a want, need, or desire.
This internal state can cause a person to act or move toward a goal. Motivation similar to intelligence cannot be directly observed, but it can be inferred by noting behavior SparkNotes, Motivation can be extrinsic, intrinsic, or both.
Extrinsic motivation is done for external rewards such as a person who sings to be famous, or make money. Intrinsic motivation is for the sake of doing the activity such a person who sings for him or herself.
An example of both could be a person who sings for religious reasons such as church, this person sings for his or her faith and the sake of singing, but also has the chance of becoming famous. Motivation is also a person springing into a form of action or thought; this action can be done through the pull of an incentive or the push of a motive.
A common push is a biological need such as food, and a common pull is a incentive value such as obtaining a higher degree of education. Sources of motivation can be both internal and external. Sources of Motivation Internal Sources: Motivation can be from internal source such as biological attributes and psychological depositions Deckers, Psychological variables are a need to belong, and as this need increases, associated feelings can increase along with consummatory behaviors.
When a person has a strong need to fit into a social affiliation but his or her level is below the status level the need to belong will arise. Biological attributes that motivate behaviors are in the body and brain. One such attribute can be hunger; the need to eat can cause motivation to: The biological and psychological attributes to behavior intertwine as the brain and mind.
The mind is an emergence property of the brain. The minds mental process is the activity of neurons in the brain a concept of reductionism. The need to eat and the sensation of hunger come from the merger of brain and mind intertwining of the body and brain. Internal sources push toward the incentive which is the desired end.
Internal motivations also have an external source. External sources that affect behavior are environmental. The environment can attract or repel with incentives and goals. These attractions can be positive or negative, positive external sources can attract a person toward the incentive although a negative will repel the person. The higher the level of attraction or the more repulsive the attraction will have a more motivation, than the smaller values Deckers, Biological attributes to motivation can be hunger, physical needs, and thirst.