Music and the brain: the neuroscience of music and musical appreciation
'There's something about music that taps into the person that has always been there, and that connection with the really, deeply, long-ago. One of the world's leading experts on the intimate relationship between music and the brain is the brain scientist (and musician) Peter Vuust. The connection between music and memory a potential explanation for this link between music and memory by mapping the brain activity of.
It is proving to be an effective clinical tool for treating medical diagnoses such as Alzheimer's disease, autism, post-traumatic stress disorder, dementia, stroke, NICU infants, language acquisition, dyslexia, pain management, stress and anxiety, coma, and more. Recently, TDLC members were involved in organizing two conferences about music and the brain. The second -- the New York Academy of Science multidisciplinary conference on " Music, Science and Medicine " -- occurred the next day, on March 25, This landmark meeting explored the connection between recent scientific findings and their possible application to clinical music and physiological function.
The ultimate goal of the conference was to bring together experts studying music in human adaptive function, physiological sciences, neuroscience, neurology, medical research, psychology, music education, and other related disciplines, and to promote collaborative research, communication, and translation of scientific research into music-based clinical treatments of disease. Please click here for conference abstracts.
To view conference talks on The Science Network please click here. Paula Tallal, who helped to organize the NYAS music conference, explains how music -- more specifically timing in the auditory system -- might affect language development: Children with language learning problems or weak language development can't sequence two simple tones that differ in frequency when they are presented rapidly in succession.
They do absolutely fine when you present two tones separated further apart in time. In order to become a proficient reader and to learn how to spell, we need to hear these small acoustic differences in words and learn that it's those acoustic differences that actually go with the letters.
Music and the Brain: Music and Memory
Using electroencephalographic recording, they have found that the way these infants process sound in their brains may provide a way to predict later language difficulties. The researchers hope to develop interventions that might correct any early deficiencies please click here for more.
Additional studies have revealed that musical training may help language processing.
Studies by Nadine Gaabassistant Professor of Pediatrics at Children's Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, have demonstrated that people with musical experience found it easier than non-musicians to detect small differences in word syllables. Musical experience improved the way people's brains process split-second changes in sounds and tones used in speech, and consequently, may affect the acoustic and phonetic skills needed for learning language and reading. Another key investigator in the field of music and the brain, Nina Kraus from Northwestern University, is studying the neurobiology underlying speech and music perception.
She has found that "musical experience strengthens neural, perceptual and cognitive skills that undergird hearing speech in noise throughout the lifespan.
Their pilot project, conducted at the Museum School a San Diego City Schools charter schooldemonstrated a significant correlation between the ability of children to synchronize in an ensemble setting—regardless of other musical abilities— and their ability to "pay attention" or maintain focus not only in music class but in other areas as well. This increase in overall attentional performance was measured by standard psychometric tests and teacher questionnaires.
Now that a relationship between the ability to synchronize musically and attentional performance has been established, and because musical synchrony can be learned, the research team seeks to determine whether a period of musical practice might translate to overall improvement in attentional performance.
Please see the Gamelan Project website for more information about this study. Isabel Gauthier, and her graduate student Yetta Wong are interested in the holistic processing of musical notation. They studied brain activity in people with various degrees of musical experience, and were surprised by exactly how much of the brain becomes engaged in the simple act of perceiving a single note, especially in advanced musicians.
Scott Makeig, Tzyy-Ping Jung, and colleagues are developing technology that links thoughts, commands and emotions from the brain to computers, using EEG. His studies use the Brain Computer Interface to read emotions and convert those emotions into musical tones. Makeig composed the music and performed the violin, accompanied by a flutist, a cellist, and a so-called "brainist".
The "brainist," cognitive science graduate student Tim Mullen, focused on one of five distinct emotional states, feeling it fully inside his body. It may help them to have a moment where they are connecting and interacting and having some sort of social connection with someone else ABC RN Amee Baird, a clinical neuropsychologist at Macquarie University, says research indicates memories formed during one's late teens and early 20s are 'really powerful' and 'easy to bring to mind'.
It seems that the late teens and early 20s, there is what's called a "reminiscence bump", or an increase in memories around that time. I see that in all of the different work that I do,' she says. We don't have upbeat music at that time, we just go really calm, take it through, and it really helps ease them into a change of routine. His research looks at creating an exchange between the brain and the bloodstream. We were able to completely restore their memories.
I don't think that it can restore memories. Even when you look at music, what it does to human patients, it's known that it has some effect on depression, it certainly has no effect on cognition, but it has a positive effect on emotions, for example. She says the ability for patients to learn new music, but struggle to remember other basic skills, comes down to the type of memory formed.
Music and the Brain
She is 91 years old and her name is Norma. And her daughter emailed me and said, "I hope you can come and meet my mum because it's amazing, she can sing along to new pop songs that come on the radio. And so I went to meet Norma and actually taught her to sing a new song.
She couldn't remember meeting me or having learnt the song, but she could actually sing the song. So that implicit memory is preserved in dementia.