Pontiac's uprising (article) | Khan Academy
Pontiac's uprising demonstrated the viability of pantribal cooperation in the struggle expansionism and contributed to the deterioration of relations between Great The British government issued the Royal Proclamation of , drawing a. The Proclamation of was a result of Pontiac's Rebellion. In May of , Ottawa Chief Pontiac raised a confederation to attack Fort Detroit, because he felt . Pontiac's Rebellion and the Proclamation of . because expansion threatened to undermine the Empire's economic relationship with the colonies. Others.
The attacks on British forts were not simultaneous: This belief was widely held by British officials at the time, but subsequent historians have found no evidence of official French involvement in the uprising.
The rumor of French instigation arose in part because French war belts from the Seven Years' War were still in circulation in some Native villages. Rather than the French stirring up the Native Americans, some historians now argue that the Native Americans were trying to stir up the French. Pontiac and other native leaders frequently spoke of the imminent return of French power and the revival of the Franco-Native alliance; Pontiac even flew a French flag in his village.
All of this was apparently intended to inspire the French to rejoin the struggle against the British. Although some French colonists and traders supported the uprising, the war was initiated and conducted by Native Americans who had Native—not French—objectives. Though the idea to gain independence for all Native Americans west of the Allegheny Mountains did not originate with him but with two Seneca leaders, Tahaiadoris and Guyasuta, by February Pontiac appeared to embrace the idea.
At an emergency council meeting, Pontiac clarified his military support of the broad Seneca plan and worked to galvanize other nations into the military operation that he helped lead, in direct contradiction to traditional Indian leadership and tribal structure. He achieved this coordination through the distribution of war belts: Using the teachings of Neolin to inspire his listeners, Pontiac convinced a number of Ottawas, OjibwasPotawatomisand Hurons to join him in an attempt to seize Fort Detroit.
It is important for us, my brothers, that we exterminate from our lands this nation which seeks only to destroy us. You see as well as I that we can no longer supply our needs, as we have done from our brothers, the French.
Therefore, my brothers, we must all swear their destruction and wait no longer. Nothing prevents us; they are few in numbers, and we can accomplish it. The British had learned of Pontiac's plan, however, and were armed and ready. Pontiac and his allies killed all of the British soldiers and settlers they could find outside of the fort, including women and children.
Eventually more than soldiers from a half-dozen tribes joined the siege. Nevertheless, the situation at Fort Detroit remained a stalemate, and Pontiac's influence among his followers began to wane. Groups of Native Americans began to abandon the siege, some of them making peace with the British before departing. On October 31,finally convinced that the French in Illinois would not come to his aid at Detroit, Pontiac lifted the siege and removed to the Maumee Riverwhere he continued his efforts to rally resistance against the British.
It had been built in by order of General Amherst, despite the objections of local Wyandotswho in warned the commander that they would soon burn it down. They seized the commander and killed the other 15 soldiers, as well as British traders at the fort. Joseph the site of present-day NilesMichigan was captured on May 25,by the same method as at Sandusky. Potawatomis seized the commander and killed most of the man garrison outright. On May 27,the commander was lured out of the fort by his Native mistress and shot dead by Miami Native Americans.
The nine-man garrison surrendered after the fort was surrounded. They lured soldiers outside for a council, and took the man garrison captive without bloodshed. The Native Americans around Fort Ouiatenon had good relations with the British garrison, but emissaries from Pontiac at Detroit had convinced them to strike. The warriors apologized to the commander for taking the fort, saying that "they were obliged to do it by the other Nations.
On June 2,local Ojibwas staged a game of stickball a forerunner of lacrosse with visiting Sauks. The soldiers watched the game, as they had done on previous occasions. The ball was hit through the open gate of the fort; the teams rushed in and were given weapons which Native women had smuggled into the fort. The warriors killed about 15 of the man garrison in the struggle; later they killed five more in ritual torture. They killed the entire man garrison outright, keeping the commander alive to write down the grievances of the Senecas.
After that, they ritually burned him at the stake. After holding out for two days, the garrison of about 30 to 60 men surrendered, on the condition that they could return to Fort Pitt. Nearly people crowded inside, including more than women and children. Too strong to be taken by force, the fort was kept under siege throughout July. Meanwhile, Delaware and Shawnee war parties raided deep into Pennsylvania, taking captives and killing unknown numbers of settlers in scattered farms. Two smaller strongholds that linked Fort Pitt to the east, Fort Bedford and Fort Ligonierwere sporadically fired upon throughout the conflict, but were never taken.
He ordered subordinates to "immediately We must on this occasion use every stratagem in our power to reduce them. I will try to inocculate [ sic ] the Indians by means of Blankets that may fall in their hands, taking care however not to get the disease myself.
As it is pity to oppose good men against them, I wish we could make use of the Spaniard's Method, and hunt them with English Dogs. Supported by Rangers, and some Light Horse, who would I think effectively extirpate or remove that Vermine. In a postscript, Amherst replied: You will Do well to try to Innoculate [ sic ] the Indians by means of Blankets, as well as to try Every other method that can serve to Extirpate this Execrable Race.
I should be very glad your Scheme for Hunting them Down by Dogs could take Effect, but England is at too great a Distance to think of that at present. Officers at the besieged Fort Pitt had already attempted to do what Amherst and Bouquet were discussing, apparently on their own initiative. During a parley at Fort Pitt on June 24,Ecuyer gave Delaware representatives, Turtleheart and Mamaltee,  two blankets and a handkerchief that had been exposed to smallpox, hoping to spread the disease to the Native Americans in order to "extirpate" them from the territory.
Pontiac's Rebellion - Ohio History Central
Historian Francis Jennings concluded that the attempt was "unquestionably successful and effective" and inflicted great damage to the Native Americans. On August 5, these two forces met at the Battle of Bushy Run. Although his force suffered heavy casualties, Bouquet fought off the attack and relieved Fort Pitt on August 20, bringing the siege to an end.
His victory at Bushy Run was celebrated in the British colonies—church bells rang through the night in Philadelphia —and praised by King George. Fort Niagaraone of the most important western forts, was not assaulted, but on September 14,at least Senecas, Ottawas, and Ojibwas attacked a supply train along the Niagara Falls portage. Two companies sent from Fort Niagara to rescue the supply train were also defeated.
More than 70 soldiers and teamsters were killed in these actions, which Anglo-Americans called the " Devil's Hole Massacre ", the deadliest engagement for British soldiers during the war.
The violence and terror of Pontiac's War convinced many western Pennsylvanians that their government was not doing enough to protect them. This discontent was manifested most seriously in an uprising led by a vigilante group that came to be known as the Paxton Boysso-called because they were primarily from the area around the Pennsylvania village of Paxton or Paxtang.
The Paxtonians turned their anger towards Native Americans—many of them Christians—who lived peacefully in small enclaves in the midst of white Pennsylvania settlements. Prompted by rumors that a Native war party had been seen at the Native village of Conestoga, on December 14,a group of more than 50 Paxton Boys marched on the village and murdered the six Susquehannocks they found there.
Pennsylvania officials placed the remaining 16 Susquehannocks in protective custody in Lancasterbut on December 27 the Paxton Boys broke into the jail and slaughtered most of them. Governor John Penn issued bounties for the arrest of the murderers, but no one came forward to identify them.
Several hundred Paxtonians marched on Philadelphia in Januarywhere the presence of British troops and Philadelphia militia prevented them from committing more violence. Benjamin Franklinwho had helped organize the local militia, negotiated with the Paxton leaders and brought an end to the immediate crisis. Franklin published a scathing indictment of the Paxton Boys.
British response, —[ edit ] Native American raids on frontier settlements escalated in the spring and summer of The hardest hit colony that year was Virginia, where more raids occurred on July 26, when four Delaware Indian soldiers killed and scalped a school teacher and ten children in what is now Franklin CountyPennsylvania.
Incidents such as these prompted the Pennsylvania Assembly, with the approval of Governor Penn, to reintroduce the scalp bounties offered during the French and Indian War, which paid money for every Native killed above the age of ten, including women. InGage sent two expeditions into the west to crush the rebellion, rescue British prisoners, and arrest the Native Americans responsible for the war. According to historian Fred AndersonGage's campaign, which had been designed by Amherst, prolonged the war for more than a year because it focused on punishing the Native Americans rather than ending the war.
Gage's one significant departure from Amherst's plan was to allow William Johnson to conduct a peace treaty at Niagara, giving those Native Americans who were ready to "bury the hatchet" a chance to do so. The Native orator holds a belt of wampumessential for diplomacy in the Eastern Woodlands. Although most Iroquois had stayed out of the war, Senecas from the Genesee River valley had taken up arms against the British, and Johnson worked to bring them back into the Covenant Chain alliance.
As restitution for the Devil's Hole ambush, the Senecas were compelled to cede the strategically important Niagara portage to the British. Johnson even convinced the Iroquois to send a war party against the Ohio Native Americans. This Iroquois expedition captured a number of Delawares and destroyed abandoned Delaware and Shawnee towns in the Susquehanna Valleybut otherwise the Iroquois did not contribute to the war effort as much as Johnson had desired.
Bradstreet was to subdue the Native Americans around Detroit before marching south into the Ohio Country. The second expedition, commanded by Colonel Bouquet, was to march west from Fort Pitt and form a second front in the Ohio Country.
Bradstreet set out from Fort Schlosser in early August with about 1, soldiers and a large contingent of Native allies enlisted by Sir William Johnson.
Eight British forts fell, which included major installations at Presque Isle, Sandusky and Michilimackinac. Fort Michilimackinac present Mackinaw City, Michigan was the largest fort taken by surprise. On June 4,local Ojibwas staged a game of Indian stickball a forerunner of lacrosse with visiting Sauks. The soldiers watched the game, as they had done on previous occasions. The ball was hit through the open gate of the fort; the teams rushed in and were then handed weapons previously smuggled into the fort by Indian women.
Treaty of Paris () - Ohio History Central
About fifteen men of the man garrison were killed in the struggle; five more were later executed. Biological warfare was also attempted if not successfully used.
While under siege at Ft. Pitt, British commanders sent out blankets and a handkerchief infected with smallpox in an attempt to spread the disease to their attackers. While many natives in the area were infected and died of smallpox, there had already been an outbreak so it is impossible to tell if the British plan was to blame for the spread of disease.
One of the prime results of Pontiac's Rebellion was the decision of British policymakers to issue the Proclamation ofa measure designed to shut down white settlement of the West until organizational reforms could be affected. American reaction to this measure was immediate and heated. It is also important to note that most of the fighting against the Indians during this uprising was conducted by British regulars.
The colonial soldiers had performed poorly during the French and Indian War and were purposely excluded by British commanders. On October 7,the British government issued the Royal Proclamation of It is sometimes written that the Proclamation was a response to Pontiac's War, but this is only partially correct. The Proclamation was part of an effort to reorganize British North America after the Treaty of Paris, and the policies contained in the Proclamation were already in the works when Pontiac's War erupted.
The outbreak of the war hastened the process. The most significant aspect of the Proclamation was that it drew a boundary line between the British colonies and American Indian lands west of the Appalachians. Some Crown officials wanted to limit colonial westward expansion because expansion threatened to undermine the Empire's economic relationship with the colonies.
Others wanted the colonies to expand, but in a more peaceful and orderly fashion. These expansionists supported a boundary line in order to temporarily halt westward migration until a better expansion policy could be devised — one that would not provoke expensive wars with American Indians.
The colonists generally resented the Proclamation of because many of the colonies had extensive land claims in the west. Many colonists often landless hoped to settle in the west themselves, and land speculators looked upon the west as a source of potential wealth. Although the success of the British Empire in the Seven Years' War was a source of pride for many in the British colonies, the Proclamation served to undermine colonial attachment to the Empire.
In the coming years, many in the colonies resisted the new taxation that was imposed by the Crown — taxes that were intended to pay for the wars that had been fought to secure North America for the British Empire.
Royal officials regarded the colonists as ungrateful for refusing to help pay for the army that had protected them during the "Indian uprising. Proclamation of The end of the French and Indian War in was a cause for great celebration in the colonies, for it removed several ominous barriers and opened up a host of new opportunities for the colonists.
The French had effectively hemmed in the British settlers and had, from the perspective of the settlers, played the "Indians" against them.
- Pontiac’s Rebellion begins
- Pontiac's uprising
- Pontiac's Rebellion and the Proclamation of 1763
The first thing on the minds of colonists was the great western frontier that had opened to them when the French ceded that contested territory to the British. The royal proclamation of did much to dampen that celebration.