Agreement regarding Procedures to End Border Disputes (W. Pakistan)
The newly demarcated borders resulted into one of the biggest human . Read More: How India, Pakistan and Bangladesh were formed. Line of Control (LOC): Line of control is the boundary between the Pakistani Azad Kashmir and Indian Jammu and Kashmir. It was demarcated after the Simla. Over miles of this boundary have already been demarcated. . assist in the maintenance and promotion of friendly relations between India and Pakistan.
He justified the exclusion of the Amritsar district because of its sacredness to the Sikhs and that of Gurdaspur district because it had to go with Amritsar for 'geographical reasons'.
The specific problem is: Relevance to the topic of the article is not clear Please help improve this section if you can. July Learn how and when to remove this template message While Master Tara Singh confused Rajagopalchari's offer with the Muslim League demand he could see that any division of Punjab would leave the Sikhs divided between Pakistan and Hindustan. He espoused the doctrine of self-reliance, opposed partition and called for independence on the grounds that no single religious community should control Punjab.
Other Sikhs argued that just as Muslims feared Hindu domination the Sikhs also feared Muslim domination. Sikhs warned the British government that the morale of Sikh troops in the British Army would be affected if Pakistan was forced on them. Since Hindus seemed more concerned about the rest of India than Punjab, Master Tara Singh refused to ally with them and preferred to approach the British directly.
Giani Kartar Singh drafted the scheme of a separate Sikh state if India was divided. Sikhs refused because they opposed the concept of Pakistan and also because they were opposed to being a small minority within a Muslim majority. There are various reasons for the Sikh refusal to join Pakistan but one clear fact was that the Partition of Punjab left a deep impact on the Sikh psyche with many Sikh holy sites ending up in Pakistan.
Vir Singh Bhatti proposed the creation of a separate Sikh state "Khalistan". Master Tara Singh wanted the right for an independent Khalistan to federate with either Hindustan or Pakistan. However, the Sikh state being proposed was for an area where no religion was in absolute majority.
By early September the Sikh leaders accepted both the long term and interim proposals despite their earlier rejection. Congress agreed to allow Pakistan to be formed with 'genuine Muslim areas'. The Sikh leaders asked for a Sikh state with AmbalaJalandherLahore Divisions with some districts from the Multan Divisionwhich, however, did not meet the Cabinet delegates' agreement.
In discussions with Jinnah, the Cabinet Mission offered either a 'smaller Pakistan' with all the Muslim-majority districts except Gurdaspur or a 'larger Pakistan' under the sovereignty of the Indian Union.
According to Ahmed, such a division should have meant that Muslim estates in the United Provinces be separated and given to Pakistan. Nehru told Menon that the partition of Punjab and Bengal would bring the more fertile parts of these two provinces into the Indian Union so that a truncated Pakistan would not be worth having. Scholar Sialkoti states that Mountbatten and his staff had already evaluated all the recommendations for the partition of Punjab and done their homework prior to their arrival.
Within ten days, Mountbatten's staff had categorically stated that Congress had conceded the Pakistan demand except for the 13 eastern districts of Punjab including Amritsar and Gurdaspur. Through a series of six meetings with Mountbatten, he continued to maintain that his demand was for six full provinces.
He "bitterly complained" that the Viceroy was ruining his Pakistan by cutting Punjab and Bengal in half as this would mean a 'moth-eaten Pakistan'. Their members of the Punjab legislature made representations to Mountbatten's chief of staff Lord Ismay as well as the Governor telling them that Gurdaspur was a "non-Muslim district".
He proposed that a Boundary Commission be set up consisting of two Muslim and two non-Muslim members recommended by the Punjab Legislative Assembly. He also proposed that a British judge of the High Court be appointed as the chairman of the Commission. In this context the Partition Plan of 3 June was announced with a notional partition showing 17 districts of Punjab in Pakistan and 12 districts in India, along with the establishment of a Boundary Commission to decide the final boundary.
In Sialkoti's view, this was done mainly to placate the Sikhs.
In order to determine exactly which territories to assign to each country, in JuneBritain appointed Sir Cyril Radcliffe to chair two Boundary Commissions—one for Bengal and one for Punjab. In doing so, it will also take into account other factors. Given the deadlock between the interests of the two sides and their rancorous relationship, the final decision was essentially Radcliffe's.
After arriving in India on 8 JulyRadcliffe was given just five weeks to decide on a border. Mountbatten had accepted the post as Viceroy on the condition of an early deadline. They had no advisers to inform them of the well-established procedures and information needed to draw a boundary.
Nor was there time to gather the survey and regional information. The absence of some experts and advisers, such as the United Nations, was deliberate, to avoid delay.
The relationships were so tendentious that the judges "could hardly bear to speak to each other", and the agendas so at odds that there seemed to be little point anyway.
How were the India-Pakistan partition borders drawn? | India-Pakistan Partition | Al Jazeera
Even worse, "the wife and two children of the Sikh judge in Lahore had been murdered by Muslims in Rawalpindi a few weeks earlier. The Punjab Border Commission was to draw a border through the middle of an area home to the Sikh community.
Moreover, many insisted on their own sovereign state, something no-one else would agree to. The Bengal Border Commission representatives were chiefly concerned with the question of who would get Calcutta.
The Buddhist tribes in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bengal had no official representation and were left totally without information to prepare for their situation until two days after the partition.
This was impossible from inception, but Radcliffe seems to have had no doubt in himself and raised no official complaint or proposal to change the circumstances.
It was agreed that all preliminary work short of actual work in the field should be undertaken now by both sides so that demarcation to implement the Nehru-Noon Agreement can be carried out expeditiously as soon as the requisite legal procedures are devised. It was also agreed that India, while framing the legislation, if required, to effect transfer of territorial jurisdiction consequent on demarcation, will make a provision in the said legislation which will give government necessary authority to effect such transfers in connection with boundary disputes that may be settled.
Detailed Ground Rules for the guidance of the Border Security forces along the Indo-East Pakistan frontier prepared as a result of the deliberations of the Conference-copy attached '. Appendix 1-will be put into force by both sides immediately. The decisions taken at the Conference of Chief Secretaries in August for constant contact between the border authorities on both sides with a view to maintaining peaceful conditions, which have been further elaborated at the Conference, Appendix 11 should also be implemented by issue of detailed instructions by the Governments concerned.
It was also agreed that the Chief Secretaries will jointly review the progress of demarcation every quarter. Detailed programmes for demarcation work for the field season should be prepared as usual.
Provisions made in the Ground Rules for speeding up demarcation work and for consequential exchange of territorial jurisdiction should be strictly observed.
Exchange of all areas already dernareated along the Indo-East Pakistan boundary should take place before 30th June,subject to the necessary legal and constitutional procedures being worked out. As regards the boundary between West Bengal and East Pakistan in the areas of Mahananda, Burung and Karatoa rivers, it was agreed that demarcation will be made in accordance with the latest cadastral survey maps supported by relevant notifications and record-of-rights.
Tripura-East Pakistan Boundary Exploratory discussions revealed that the problem had not been carefully studied as all the material on each side had not been examined and there was divergence of opinion as to whether the Kar-Creed maps or the revenue survey maps should be taken as the basis of demarcation. It was agreed that copies of the relevant records available with both sides should be supplied to each other and facilities given to see the originals and the experts on both sides should, within a period of two months, be ready with their appreciation of the records and indicate: The two Governments or their representatives will, on receipt of this material, discuss the matter further and decide what should be adopted as the basis of demarcation in these various regions of the Tripura-East Pakistan Border.
Assam-East Pakistan Boundary The three pending disputes have been settled along the lines given below in a spirit of accommodation: The line described above has been plotted on two copies of topographical map sheets Nos. The technical experts responsible for the ground demarcation will have the authority to make minor adjustments in order to make the boundary alignment agree with the physical features as described.
The losses and gains to either country as a result of these adjustments with respect to the line marked on the map will be balanced by the technical experts.India and Pakistan: The world's most dangerous border
India's territorial jurisdiction in the whole of Tukergram village will be immediately restored. Use of Common Rivers The need for evolving some procedures for the purpose of mutual consultations in regard to utilisation of water resources of common rivers was recognised by both sides. The Indian Delegation assured that India will raise no objection to the development activities in connection with the Karnafuli dam project in East Pakistan on consideration of submergence of some area in India.
It was agreed that immediate steps should be taken for the demarcation of that portion of the boundary where some area might be permanently flooded when the Karnafuli dam in East Pakistan is raised to its full height so that the Governments of Pakistan and India can, in the light of the resulting area flooded, discuss how the claims of the Government of India regarding the loss, if any, caused by the flooding of the Indian territory should be settled.
Impartial Tribunals It was agreed that all outstanding boundary disputes on the East Pakistan - India and West Pakistan-India border raised so far by either country should be referred to an impartial tribunal consisting of three members, for settlement and implementation of that settlement by demarcation on the ground and by exchange of territorial jurisdiction, if any.
Any dispute which may have been referred to the tribunal can be withdrawn by mutual agreement. It was also agreed that the decision of the tribunal shall be by majority and final and binding on both the parties.
It was agreed that neither country will train its border rivers so as to cut into the territory of the other. Press It was agreed that efforts should be made by both countries to advise their press from time to time to exercise restraint and assist in the maintenance and promotion of friendly relations between India and Pakistan.
It was also agreed that false or exaggerated reports in the press, which are likely to worsen Indo-Pakistan relations, should be contradicted by the Governments concerned. From the Pakistan side Mr. For the sake of clarity the paper is divided into two parts-part I deals with the basic requirements which will have direct bearing on the implementation of the "Ground Rules" which are outlined in part II. We earnestly feel that unless the basic requirements are fulfilled, the implementation of the "Ground Rules" will not be as effective as we would like them to be.
During the general discussions between the two delegations held from the 15th to 19th October,it was agreed: The progress of demarcation should be reviewed every quarter by the Governments of Pakistan and India with reference to the Field programmes settled by the D.
Rs and necessary action taken to resolve difficulties, if any, and to expedite progress of demarcation work. In case of a dispute, the disputed portion may be left out, the dispute being reported cartographically and in writing to the Chief Secretaries of the Governments concerned who would resolve the dispute or refer to the Central Government concerned and the demarcation should proceed from where the disputed area ends.
India–Pakistan border - Wikipedia
To implement this it was agreed that the transfer of territorial jurisdiction should take place on an agreed date which shall not be later than the 31st of December of the year in which demarcation has been completed by the 31st of May. The State Government shall make every attempt to speedily transfer the territorial jurisdiction of these areas in respect of which the following processes have been completed: Rs concerned; Necessary time should be allowed to the farmers to harvest their crops before the transfer of territorial jurisdiction; and iii Before the transfer of territorial jurisdiction, the authorities on the two sides should collect data on the populated and farm areas and on properties held by individuals.
On the Indo-East Pakistan border the security forces of both the countries are located in close proximity of each other. Owing to a variety of reasons there have been occasional firings across the border. The causes which usually lead to firing are: Therefore, when nationals of the other country cross into what they think is their territory, fire is opened to prevent the ingress.
This leads to claims and counter-claims as to which side owns the char lands. Firing is resorted to support claims of the respective sides. A "trigger-happy" person lets off a round and this develops into a shooting match.