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For the sake of clarity, bearing in mind the same or at least similar sense of a particular term, Table 1 presents some of the key terms that are frequently used throughout this book along with their definitions that were agreed on with the drafting committee and the authors of the various chapters of this publication.

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The process of species introductions where the distinctive developmental stages are shown; the key terms relating to introduced tree species along with the management actions and the major barriers limiting the spread of introduced tree species are also presented adapted from Blackburn et al. Key terms and their definitions. Term Definition Source Introduction A process or an action that enables a species or its propagule to overcome, through a human agency, a major geographical barrier.

Amended from Richardson et al. Gassmann and Weber Invasion A process whereby a species must overcome a series of barriers to be able to spread into novel areas in which it becomes dominant.

Naturalisation Process whereby the species establishes new selfperpetuating populations, undergoes widespread dispersal and becomes incorporated within the resident flora. The reasons for tree species introductions are described in some of the chapters in this book along with the underlying processes leading to particular species becoming invasive.

There are two distinct types of tree introductions: Although both introduction types are relevant to forestry, intentional introductions may be considered of particular importance. Setting aside introduction of individual trees for ornamental purposes, planting introduced tree species for forestry purposes have resulted in large areas being planted with high numbers of trees; this translates into a high propagule pressure, which has been recognised as a major factor in a tree species becoming invasive e.

It is therefore no surprise that the combination of intensive forest plantation management large scale, high density, re-establishing populationshigh propagule pressure and species traits has made forestry an efficient pathway for invasion e. However, we must also consider that the introductions used in plantation forestry have contributed substantially towards providing jobs and income in rural areas that would otherwise be rather scarce in such areas in some countries.

The growing need for timber supply for various purposes, the necessity to produce biomass for energy, and the obligation to retain carbon in forests to mitigate climate change, etc. Climatic change is influencing our ecosystems and there is a need to be better prepared for further changes as well as to increase the resilience of forests.

In order to fulfil the increasing demand for multiple services from forests, it is important to consider the various demands on a large scale. This is clearly a policy task and there are efforts to tackle the various challenges in distinct initiatives.

Inthe European Commission published the first list on Invasive Alien Species, which was a result of the convention on the management and prevention of invasive alien species EC About this book The major aim of this book is to create a compilation of chapters highlighting some of the major aspects of the topic of introduced tree species within a European context.

There has been a request for such a publication on this topic as the discussions on introduced species are often not objective and are often driven by emotions.

Introduced tree species in European forests

The presented findings are based on sound scientific studies as well as on reliable examples from practice. The chapters included in this book do not exhaustively cover the topic of introduced and invasive tree species across the European continent as it is a very complex topic including multiple themes and subjects. However, we aim to present a selection of issues of current importance, as well as to provide an overview on available knowledge that can be applied or adapted elsewhere.

In order to ensure a concise volume of the book, individual 16 Introduction chapters are brief focusing only on the major features of the topic they cover. In addition, the book contains Boxes that are short inserts focusing on specific issues that provide supplementary information on particular topics.

The readers should keep in mind that there is a considerable variation in the professional background of different authors — some are forestry practitioners actively engaged in forest management, while others are researchers, others are civil servants, and others work for non-governmental agencies focusing on natural sciences. The variety of expertise amongst the authors ranges from nature conservation to forestry, but authors from social sciences and invasion ecology have also contributed.

Last, but definitely not least; the book is aimed at readers from a variety of backgrounds. The chapters within this book were written in a style that is accessible to lay persons with an interest in nature, but also that the chapters are interesting, bringing new insights for those with a professional interest in the subject.

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A proposed unified framework for biological invasions. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. Secretariat of the Convention on Biodiversity, Montreal, Canada. Invasions by alien plants in the Czech Republic: On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. Official Journal of the European Union. The ecology of invasions by animals and plants.

Socioeconomic legacy yields an invasion debt. Invasive alien species in Switzerland. An inventory of alien species and their threat to biodiversity and economy in Switzerland.

Federal Office for the Environment. European strategy on invasive alien species. Council of Europe Publishing. Trade, transport and trouble: Journal of Applied Ecology.

Bias and error in current knowledge of plant invasions impacts. Defining the impact of non-native species. Planting history and propagule pressure as predictors of invasion by woody species in a temperate region. Alien flora of Europe: Global patterns of plant invasions and the concept of invasibility. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. Alien plants in checklists and floras: Alien vascular plants of Europe. Handbook of Alien Species in Europe.

Naturalization and invasion of alien plants: Fifty years of invasion ecology: A compendium of essential concepts and terminology in biological invasions. In search of a real definition of the biological invasion phenomenon itself. Chapman and Hall, London. Something in the way you move: European tree dynamics and invasions during the Quaternary H.

Birks and Willy Tinner 1. Trees are no exception but the relevant temporal and spatial scales are naturally different from those for a small annual forest herb because of the long life-span and large size of trees. European trees have varied in their abundance and geographical distribution over the last 5 million years or more in response to major global climate changes Birks and Tinner They have also undergone similarly striking changes due to the alternating glacial— interglacial cycles within the Quaternary period last 2.

The problem with studying tree dynamics is that many trees are long-lived and their lifespans greatly exceed those of ecologists, foresters, and woodland historians. As we cannot directly record tree dynamics in space and time at the relevant scales, we need to reconstruct past tree dynamics indirectly using the palaeobotanical record.

Other emerging and rapidly developing approaches such as ancient DNA, phylogeography, and back-cast dynamic vegetation modelling Henne et al. Methodological considerations Pollen analysis as a tool for the reconstruction of past forests and changing tree abundances in space and time was invented years ago in by the Swedish geologist Lennart 1 Parts of this review are reproduced from Birks and Tinner in the recently published European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 22 1.

Lennart von Post —the Swedish Quaternary geologist who was the main inventor of pollen analysis in the early 20th century and demonstrated the power of pollen analysis as a tool in reconstructing forest and climate history. It is still the dominant technique for studying tree and vegetation dynamics at decadal to centennial scales in the Quaternary, especially the last 15 years of the late-Quaternary.

Von Post had the brilliant idea of expressing fossil pollen assemblages in a single sample of peat as percentages of the sum of pollen grains counted, and of presenting these percentages as stratigraphical pollen diagrams with pollen assemblages plotted against their stratigraphical position depth or age through the sediment sequence Figure 6. He showed strong similarities in pollen diagrams from a small area, and striking differences between different areas. He was thus able to provide the fourth dimension of time to the study of tree dynamics and vegetation and forest history.

Summary pollen diagram from Lago di Origlio, a small lake in Ticino, southern Switzerland covering the last 19 —18 years only selected taxa shown.

Introduced tree species in European forests -

The vegetation history of this site is representative for northern Italy including the northern Apennines with exception of the Po-Plain lowlands. The horizontal lines represent partitions of the pollen stratigraphy into main pollen-assemblage zones, which reflect different vegetation types. The phases of the glacial-interglacial cycle see Box 3 and the Homo sapiens phase are also indicated.

The chronology is based on 25 radiocarbon dates which were calibrated with the program calib 7.

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The taxa are ordered according to their temporal expansion. The local presence of conifers can be inferred from stomata, a proxy for macrofossils e. BP, Pinus at ca.

Macrofossil and pollen evidence see Figure 7 can be used to infer the first establishment of populations, e.