Critical Issues in Curriculum and Instruction - TED Syllabus they have already learned in their immediate surrounding relationships. Designing Curriculum, Instruction, Assessment, and Professional The systemic and dynamic relationship among the four elements also means that changes in and helps students connect learning in school with the issues, problems, and. analyses of equity go beyond the curriculum to include the teacher and their Key Words: Curriculum; Equity/Diversity; Learning; Problem-solving; Teaching.
This model suggests that these outcomes should be applicable to all students, not just those with disabilities Ysseldyke et al. A successful schooling experience will provide the student with the tools and skills necessary to make the transition effectively to the next stage of life. For some, this means going on to college or another educational experience. For others, it means entering the workforce. The NCEO outcomes takes into account the skills students need to succeed in each domain.
For students with severe disabilities, the "criterion of ultimate functioning" is often used to guide instructional and curricular planning Brown et al. In this approach, each student's long-term outcomes e. The premise is that effective instruction involves systematic planning to determine the kinds of skills to be taught and the most effective contexts in which to teach and apply them.
Based on the criterion of ultimate functioning, instruction for students with severe disabilities has evolved into an ecological approach, meaning that the student's learning needs and functioning level are considered in conjunction with 2 The statutory meaning of the term transition services is "a coordinated set of activities for a student, designed within an outcome-oriented process, which promotes movement from school to post-school activities, including postsecondary education, vocational training, integrated employment including supported employmentcontinuing education, adult services, independent living, or community participation" Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments,Section [A], 20 U.
For elementary-school-age students, curricular priorities most often involve communication, socialization, self-help, motor skills, and functional academics Fredericks, ; Fredericks and Brodsky, ; McDonnell et al.
For secondary-school-age students, curricular priorities include employment preparation and placement, personal management, and leisure McDonnell et al. For students with mild disabilities, a combination of academic, vocational, and functional outcomes is often selected with the specific mix of components dependent on individual student goals and needs.
Although several researchers have suggested that students with mild disabilities, particularly those identified as having a learning disability, may well be able to achieve beyond their current performance levels in academic content areas Carnine et al. As students with mild disabilities enter junior and senior high school, they face an array of expectations similar to those of students without disabilities. In many schools, these students are expected to earn high school diplomas and to meet the same coursework requirements as students without disabilities.
Research has identified several important components of effective programming that can help high school students with mild disabilities meet these expectations. For those who intend to move on to postsecondary education, these elements include curricula that use a variety of approaches and instruction that teaches students "how to learn"; a system for coordinating the efforts of teachers, school administrators, parents, and community agencies; a transition component that teaches decision-making, problem-solving, and goal-setting skills; and an evaluation component that enables school personnel to systematically assess and refine the specific educational strategies being used for a student Schumaker et al.
For students whose primary option is to enter the work world immediately after school, the curriculum will focus more on the development and application of functional or compensatory skills. A growing body of research suggests that training in natural environments is an important instructional tool for the skill to be useful and maintained over time in community work settings McDonnell et al.
There also has been considerable research during the past decade about strategies for improving the employment potential of students with disabilities. Research and demonstration programs have shown that many individuals can take their place in the community workforce if provided with comprehensive employment training.
Results suggest that these training programs are best initiated while the student is still in school, so that valuable instructional time is not lost.
Research has indicated further that effective employment preparation programs for students with disabilities include: Students with disabilities may find their employability affected by another issue above and beyond the actual skills that they have achieved—namely, whether they have received a high school diploma. States take various approaches to awarding high school diplomas or other school completion credentials to students with disabilities who do not meet traditional criteria.
Some students, for example, receive a nonstandard diploma or certificate of attendance see Chapter 3. This issue of credentialing is likely to assume greater importance in a climate of standards-based reform because some states are linking receipt of a diploma to attainment of state content and performance standards.
Some students with disabilities who do not reach state standards, and thus do not meet high school diploma criteria, may find themselves disadvantaged in the job market regardless of the educational outcomes they can demonstrate Box In sum, special education has long valued educational outcomes that are broader than the academically oriented outcomes exemplified in state content standards developed thus far.
The emphasis on post-school outcomes has shaped the curricular and instructional experiences of many students with disabilities. Characteristics of Effective Special Education Instruction Research provides a great deal of information about what constitutes an effective instructional environment for students with disabilities. We discuss three broad characteristics of effective instruction, each supported by research as important for enhancing learning among many students with disabilities: Since a high school diploma is the minimum requirement for a variety of employment opportunities, some educators are concerned about the impact standards-based reform could have on the high school credentialing process for a number of students, including some with disabilities.
Over the last several decades, as the proportion of high school students receiving a high school diploma has increased, not having a diploma is regarded as damning to one's job prospects. At the same time, having a diploma has seemed, for some time now, to be only minimally impressive to employers Bishop, ; Hawkins, ; Pedulla and Reidy, Some argue that there is no substantive relationship between academic content and the awarding of a high school diploma Bishop,; Sedlak et al.
They see the move to ratchet up standards required for a diploma as an attempt "to hold schools to standards that the lay public could easily measure and understand" Sedlak et al. Raising standards in a credible way is thus a response to employer concerns about the devaluing of a diploma, as well as to more general concerns about U. Some students with disabilities in certain states receive differentiated diplomas, which distinguish students following a rigorous academic track from those following a minimally academic or vocational track.
The latter group receives certificates of attendance or other nonacademic diplomas see Chapter 3. Thus, students with disabilities operate in a credentialing universe much more complex than their general education counterparts. Potential employers may face difficulty in putting an applicant's credential in the appropriate context, given the diversity in the credentialing of students with disabilities.
This diversity makes it that much harder for students with disabilities to showcase their achievements and abilities. A number of issues about credentialing for students with disabilities warrant attention. First, if standards for a high school diploma are increased, more students—including those with disabilities—may not receive diplomas and, more to the point, they will not easily be able to convey to potential employers what they have achieved in high school. Some students, including some with disabilities, who currently receive certificates of attendance face this problem.
All students—whether they currently would receive a diploma, certificate of attendance, or no certification whatsoever—deserve to leave high school able to signal credibly Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: In the medium to long run, job requirements will presumably adjust to the new standards, although what form of readily ascertainable certification will replace the high school diploma is unclear.
Second, as one changes the nature of the credentialing process, whether by increasing standards or by requiring minimum competency tests, students must first be adequately prepared to meet the challenges posed by the new credentialing process. In other words, the K curriculum ought to provide students with opportunities to learn the material required for the credential.
This concept has proved controversial and subject to litigation Debra P. The issue is further complicated by the laws requiring accommodations for students with disabilities.
Phillips and Vitello discuss issues relevant to this debate in more detail. Third, it is important to recognize that employers are constantly looking for ways to lower costs. To the extent that the credentialing system makes it more, rather than less, costly for business to evaluate the capabilities of students with disabilities, the system makes the transition to employment harder.
The importance of providing clear and credible evidence of what students have achieved and are capable of should not be underestimated. Bishop sees students having the opportunity to signal higher achievement to potential employers as providing an important incentive. Michigan, New York, and Tennessee have honors diplomas to acknowledge those whose achievements sufficiently surpass the basic requirements Bond et al.
In considering the three characteristics of effective instruction, it is important to note six assumptions. These characteristics apply to the large subset of students whose disabilities involve cognitive rather than physical or sensory impairments.
We considered only students with cognitive disabilities because they represent the majority of students identified as having a disability.
Among individuals with cognitive disabilities, the characteristics apply to the entire range of students, from those with mild to those with severe disabilities. These characteristics represent broad principles that, in light of the heterogeneity of the population of students with cognitive disabilities, must be particularized to meet individual student needs. Research on these characteristics is limited to how student acquire and use a range of relatively basic or middle-order skills, from functional personal management skills, to the achievement of literacy and numeracy, to the extraction of conceptual themes or "big ideas" Carnine and Kameenui, Research has not been conducted to determine the extent to which these characteristics apply when students with cognitive disabilities learn content that requires high levels of abstraction or creativity.
Although research on positive educational interventions supports the effectiveness of these characteristics and demonstrates that they can be applied in actual school settings, a gap exists between what is known about effective special education instruction and the typical state of practice.
The characteristics we describe may apply, to varying extents, to students with and without disabilities alike. At critical junctures, the teacher may determine whether reteaching is necessary for the entire class by assessing learning among a steering group of children who perform near the middle of the class Clark and Elmore, Instructional adaptation to address individual learning problems, however, occurs rarely in the regular classroom and in minor ways Baker and Zigmond, ; Kagan and Tippins, ; McIntosh et al.
By contrast, effective practice in special education, as measured by teacher decision making about instructional modifications and student achievement in reading, math, and spelling, centers instructional decision making on the individual student Fuchs and Fuchs, Research has specified methods for tracking student progress and for using the resulting database to formulate ambitious learning goals Fuchs et al.
Over time, the special educator empirically tests and develops an instructional 3 Many low-achieving students do well with general classroom instruction that incorporates some elements of these principles. However, for many students with disabilities, the level or intensity of application that is necessary may exceed what can reasonably be provided through general education programming. This process is called individually referenced decision making.
Individually referenced decision making is perhaps the signature feature of effective special education practice, exemplifying a basic value and representing a core assumption of special educators' professional preparation.
Individually referenced decision making requires teachers to reserve judgment about the efficacy of an instructional method for a student until the method proves effective for that individual and fosters high expectations of learning. It requires teachers to plan and make ongoing, major adjustments and revisions in response to an individual student's learning, and it requires knowledge of multiple ways to adapt curricula, modify instructional methods, and motivate students.
Corroborating evidence documents how individually referenced decision making enhances learning for students with cognitive disabilities. A meta-analysis of a number of studies summarized the efficacy of individually referenced decision making for students with cognitive disabilities with an effect size of. More recent studies in reading, spelling, and mathematics corroborate earlier evidence of positive effects Fuchs et al.
Stecker in pressfor example, sought to assess whether individually referenced decision making had benefits over and beyond the effects of less individualized methods for regularly revising instruction and routinely measuring student performance.
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Pairs of students with cognitive disabilities were matched. The performance of one randomly selected student in each pair was measured twice weekly, and the teacher formulated instructional decisions for both students in the pair based on the one student's assessment results.
Moreover, half the matched students were also measured, but teachers had no access to their assessment profiles. Results showed that students whose instructional decisions were tailored to their own ongoing assessment results achieved consistently better than the other of their matched pais, and that measurement alone contributed little to student achievement. Intensive Instruction Intensive instruction refers to a broad set of instructional features that includes, but is not limited to, a high rates of active responding at appropriate levels, b careful matching of instruction with students' skill levels, c instructional cues, prompts, and fading to support approximations to correct responding, and d detailed, task-focused feedback—all features that may be incorporated into group lessons see the work of Wolery and colleagues, e.
Meta-analyses and narrative syntheses Cohen et al. Torgesenfor example, has studied students with phonological processing deficits, who had been predicted to experience serious problems in learning to read. Children were assigned randomly to four conditions: Preliminary results of this longitudinal study indicate that children in all three intensive instruction treatments had comparable achievement, significantly better than the control group.
Just as for students with mild disabilities, research indicates that one-to-one intensive instruction helps develop the skills of students with more severe cognitive disabilities, particularly in the area of personal management, including dressing, personal hygiene, money management, and sexual behavior Billingsley et al. Researchers have demonstrated that teaching these skills in group settings often dilutes the intensity of the instruction and proves unsuccessful in terms of both acquiring and generalizing the skills e.
It is important to note that, although one-to-one tutoring may be necessary to achieve instructional intensity and promote learning within certain domains of functioning, such as reading acquisition and personal management, intensive instruction is not synonymous with one-to-one delivery.
In fact, meaningful participation by students with cognitive disabilities among normal, age-appropriate peer groups for instructional activities can be critical for promoting social development and communicative competence Haring and Ryndak, ; Nietupski and Hamre-Nietupski, ; Snell and Brown, As noted by Billingsley et al.
For example, in order to learn to read, many children with cognitive disabilities require explicit, structured instruction Stanovich, Similarly, without explicit instruction, the language development of many children with cognitive disabilities suffers Warren and Yoder, Parallel findings occur in other areas see Harris and Graham, As noted above, constructivism is an important philosophical influence in the current education reform movement.
Three assumptions of constructivism are particularly relevant to this discussion of effective special education. Second, constructivism holds that segmenting the curriculum into a hierarchy of discrete skills runs counter to how children learn Harris and Graham, Third, in constructivism, success in basic skills is not necessarily a prerequisite to more advanced learning and higher-order thinking Means and Knapp, As noted above, these assumptions are reflected in major general education reform initiatives and many content standards.
But they contrast with special education practice that has maintained a strong focus on the explicit teaching of basic skills. Indeed, three empirical literatures question the tenability of constructivist principles for many students with disabilities. First, the assumption that the appropriate role of the teacher is that of guide rather than provider of explicit instruction appears tenuous in light of research showing that many children with cognitive disabilities cannot be viewed as active, self-regulated learners.
Studies demonstrate that students with persistent histories of learning failure experience negative feedback that interferes with their motivation, making them more likely to suffer the phenomenon of learned helplessness Deci and Ryan,; Garber and Seligman, These experiences can result in behavioral patterns characterized by challenge avoidance and low persistence, which necessitate more structured, teacher-directed approaches to learning Dweck and Leggett, The second tenet of constructivism that appears somewhat problematic for students with cognitive disabilities is the assumption that cognitive components should not be isolated or fractionated and that the curriculum should not be taught as a series of discrete skills.
Research indicates that analyzing and teaching tasks in their component parts is effective and often necessary for many students with cognitive disabilities. The primary problem characterizing children with reading disabilities, for example, is a phonological processing deficit that impedes word learning and word recognition Adams and Bruck, ; Gough and Tunmer, ; Perfetti, ; Siegel, ; Stanovich, ; Vellutino and Scanlon, All too often prescription of what should be taught, or of what a student is expected to learn, tends to restrict itself to an evaluation matrix that eventually takes the place of the curriculum.
Pressure to improve educational indicators has also favored proliferation of booklet-based teaching systems. Teacher training is geared exclusively toward the use of teaching materials and resources that are available and ultimately seen as independent of teachers' proficiency.
However, little is known of the effective use of this material by teachers or of the way in which they reconstruct their teaching practice when receiving such guidance. Although in some schools that have adopted these systems there have been good results obtained in student performance indicators, there is no controlled evidence of the effects of booklet-based curricula on a larger scale. However, the model in which the "best practices" frequently found in so-called effective schools are generated, seeks to highlight the positive aspects of a curriculum management style spreading rapidly throughout school systems, as Ribeiro's study shows.
Effective schools are precisely those obtaining good IDEB scores, with low levels of truancy and dropout rates, in other words, those welcoming all students and managing to enable even those students most refractory to school culture to obtain success in learning. These schools enjoy the active involvement of a range of educational actors and generally introduce a common curricular program whose content is made use of in service teacher training processes, which helps teachers overcome problems detected by student assessment results and provides underpinning for types of approach.
What is expected is that best practices should spread widely among teaching systems, leading to a reproduction of the reported experiences. It is known, however, that these practices depend strongly upon context variables such as the institutional track record of the schools or system; therefore they are not reproduced on a large scale nor are they easily replicated. Their research shows that in contexts of greater inequality and school segregation such as in densely populated and highly urbanized metropolis, the success of a few schools is closely linked to the precariousness of working and teaching conditions in a larger number of other schools in the region.
Schools that receive students deemed "undesirable" by the better schools end up internalizing the social dynamics of the surrounding area and are unable to guarantee a school environment that is propitious for teaching and learning. They generally suffer from a high turnover of the teaching staff, a lack of direction, and a condition of anomie. It is therefore necessary to replace the competitive logic that leads to competition among schools to achieve the best results aligned with current measurement systems by more collaborative policies that help enhance teaching conditions in all schools, given that competition does not lead to improved performance by the entire set of students.
Rather, it favors increased inequality and a deficit in the acquisition of schooling. The radical change occurring in curriculum policies over the last decade has led to the reification of the role of evaluation as a promoter of teaching quality, subsuming underlying questions of quality and the meaning of education of children and adolescents, and its ability to address school and social inequalities, and has narrowed the scope of the curriculum.
Concern for the intentionality of educational actions has been replaced by the priority given to resource management - both human teachers, pedagogical advisers, school principals, supervisors and organizational didactical times, spaces and materials - geared to the "success" of schools.
And if the results of assessment are not satisfactory, what appears on the agenda is not a discussion of pedagogy or its sociocultural overlappings, but the performance of new assessment, leading to increases in the quantity of tests to which students are subjected in school systems.
As Correia writes in relation to Portugal, sanctions and prizes may also exist, insofar as evaluation devices concern themselves increasingly with the professional qualification of educational agents as a function of student performance, and are based on individual accountability for results and competition between schools. Teacher training is defended within institutional discourse as part of a continuous process of the construction of qualified practice leading to the affirmation of identity and teacher professionalization.
Although it must be agreed that markedly directive guidelines toward pedagogical practice and the obsession for a certain type of result tend to create a weak sense of professional identity.
The accent of learning policies may play a positive role by leading to a review of educational proposals in schools, and come closer to the demands of students that must be met by teaching activities. But it is a thin line separating these policies from a pragmatism that ignores links to theoretical knowledge and pedagogical mediation and the broader purposes of education.
Over-standardized curricula, strict control of teaching practices, a certain voluntary action embedded in teachers' involvement with schools' proposals and endless evaluations: Brooke and Cunhadiscussing relations between evaluation and management policies, point to the fragility of external assessment as a pedagogical instrument and to the difficulty of making more productive use of the results of evaluation since most often it is not anchored in systematized curricular proposals enjoying widespread consensus among teachers.
That is why there must be more clearly formulated curricula that can offer a clearer guiding light for their practices without restricting teachers' initiatives. Since teaching goals have been associated, in the field of education, with teaching by objectives and to a more technical tradition, mention of the mere name has been avoided. There is no consensus on this type of curriculum orientation, either within the central sphere of government or among school subject teaching specialists.
The latter have avoided involvement in these tasks.
Rethinking Curriculum and Teaching - Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Education
Nor can one count on empirical evidence as to what the school population knows or fails to know in different areas of the curriculum, apart from historical sequences about learning in Portuguese language and in mathematics, measured through system assessments, as well as certain inroads that have been made into student performance in the teaching of Sciences.
Subjects in the school curriculum are not a mere impoverished reproduction of subjects in the benchmark areas. They are cultural constructions produced by the school systems themselves for formative purposes, the goals of which are very distant from the goals of the reference sciences. Nonetheless, with regard to the field of reference sciences to which the school disciplines reports, one must remember that it grew and multiplied enormously in the twentieth century.
Historiography - to give but one example - mentions social, cultural history, the history of thought, themed history and a range of other approaches as the Braudelian one, which incorporates the contribution from several sciences. The same applies to other fields of knowledge. This means that there are many choices taken concerning theoretical lines followed in the curriculum of school subjects. These are wagers that, despite the relative consensus they enjoy because they have been included in the prescribed curriculum, are naturally open to questioning, and are hardly accompanied by studies providing evidence as to how these approaches are apprehended by the students.
Something is known - albeit not enough - about the use made by teachers of materials and curricula guidance they receive.
There are several studies concerning the use of textbooks, but more accurate indications are lacking as to teaching practice submitted to current detailed guidance contained in curricula. One must therefore recognize that we have but sketchy knowledge of the curriculum actually put into practice in basic education.
This being the case, although society is strongly mobilized with regard to learning expectations year-on-year, within the argument that the definition of expectations can help organize the teacher's work and lead to the attainment of better results, I believe that establishing an annual periodicity of what one expects the entire school population throughout Brazil to learn may cause an unimaginable contingent of students to require additional attention, and this has never been suitably solved by schools.
There are generic indications, in the National Curriculum Guidelines, of expectations in learning at the end of two-year learning cycles on primary education.
Several curricular proposal in the states use to mark out the school grades were certain contents should concentrate, but maintain a line of continuity for addressing this in other grades. For that reason decentralized initiatives by certain states and certain municipalities, to formulate curricular proposals will very likely come closer to the concrete actual situation of the region, the schools and the students.
Although the municipal education systems created after are autonomous, there are some states that have worked to connect the educational policies of the public education systems in their territory from the state and the municipalitiesespecially with regard to teacher training, which may encompass the effort to formulate a common curricular proposal, enhancing the incipient management capacity of many municipalities in curriculum matter.
However, it is known that this process does not extend to all state systems and will affect very few municipal schools, so that formulating a basic common curriculum with more accurate guidance for schools at a national level remains on the agenda as a demand. The concept of competence is polysemous and controversial and its transposition to the curriculum has aroused countless criticism from many scholars, both in Brazil and abroad.
These critiques rely mainly on aspects that allies the logic of the competence to the instrumental character of teaching; to a utilitarian view of the curriculum aimed predominantly to the know-how which best fit the interests of the business world.
Crahay states that the notion of skill engendered by companies has been taken up by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, which spread it among managers of the education system; it has been also disseminated by professional training sectors and subsequently by general teacher training sectors, eventually being absorbed by education sciences.
Curriculum and evaluation policies and teaching policies
Concerning skills-based teaching, the proposal is that it should not restrict itself to mere reproduction of literate knowledge, rather it should lead the student to mobilize as large a range of cognitive resources as possible so as adequately to respond to a new situation, taking the context into consideration. Understood in this way, the notion of skill, as Crahay says, may seduce certain educators in so far as it seems to provide an answer to the issue of the transfer of learning, since the proposal that the school should provide students with the acquisition of important intellectual instruments for social, professional and private life has not been suitably actualized.
Skills-based teaching therefore intends to fill the void between knowledge acquired at school, by means of which students do well in exams, and knowledge mobilized by action, constructed through a range of types of learning, often among peers, and employed effectively to make daily occurrences meaningful, although the latter type of knowledge has less explanatory scope than the former. Perrenoud - the skills-based teaching author most widely cited in Brazil - states that the idea of skill demands high-level mental operations by requiring mobilization of knowledge, methods, information and rules to face a situation.
Basic skills which enable an operation to be carried out in response to a command at school, responding to a known question or situation without inherent difficulty ; Second-degree skills which mean mobilizing a set of basic procedures and knowledge to respond to a new situation; and Third-degree skills, which demand correctly choosing and matching several basic skills to approach a new, complex situation.
Nonetheless, as Crahay remarks, the notion of skill has a fragile theoretical statute since one cannot conceive of the problematics of training using a term that serves to designate all aspects referring to higher psychological functions, but that simultaneously annuls the set of epistemological options that refer to the status of these functions and their determinants.
Probably for this reason Brazilian teachers find it difficult to work with skills-based teaching. The theoretical references they possess for teaching originate basically in reference sciences in which they were trained; the rest is usually contingent, random, uncertain. It is in fact the evaluators who make broad use of the notion of skill. As Crahay argues, teaching used to presuppose that mastery of knowledge was necessary and sufficient; today it is recognized that knowledge is necessary for subjects' cognitive development, but is not sufficient.
However, its importance cannot be overlooked. Skills-based teaching suggests that the past be made a tabula rasa and knowledge be pushed into a non important role. Evoking Piaget, the author goes on to say that contextualization of knowledge is one stage of the process of cognitive construction; however, the second stage is its decontextualization. It is therefore essential to plan the contextualization and the decontextualization of knowledge, in other words, its generalization in the teaching process.
This is one of the reasons why Crahay invites us to abandon the defense of skills and rehabilitate the notion of the conceptual fields, by means of which subject-specific knowledge is restored. However, the author admits that schools cannot stop there. The instrumental nature privileged by an overly economics-driven ideology accounts for an important dimension of life in society, however, it cannot be allowed a monopoly of school-based education, because it fails dismally to manage to constitute the subject, the first purpose of education.
For this to occur there must be a space for self-determination in society and a time that allows the subject to locate himself in history so is better to position himself in the contemporary world, as Touraine advocates. Diretrizes curriculares nacionais para o ensino fundamental de 9 anos. A escola das oportunidades. Por uma teoria da pedagogia. Ensaio, Rio de Janeiro, v.